ISSN: 1999-1738

Volume 4, Issue 14

Volume 4, Issue 14, Autumn 2008, Page 30-225


Authority in Architecture and Architectural Criticism

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 4, Issue 14, Pages 30-47

Many of criticism studies have focused on the concept of authority . These studies vary in their intentions, about the type of authority , according to their theoretical criticism directions. Also they varied in their disciplines, from the attention to the author, to complete care to the text; eventually they transferred to the reader in the last decade of the twentieth century .The research problem was "There is no comprehensive image about the concept of authority in Architecture and specially in Academic architectural criticism". This study aims to define the specialty of authority in architecture and architectural criticism .The research hypothesis was " the authority in architecture is convenient have multiple resources ,meanings ,and disciplines of enfolding . It is appear in the text exhibited to criticism through external items expresses the era and the rules of art. The methodology of the research is based on(theoretical study which defines the theoretical framework for authority concept in architecture and architectural criticism in general and practical study which investigated a group of academic critics, about the item of the framework .The results obtained are analyzed to reach to the conclusions about the Iraqi specialty of authority in architecture and architectural criticism .Research findings was (the authority in architecture and criticism is convenient , its resource is the text, includes many meaning , the most famous is the creativity , the effects and the superiority .The authority emerges in exhibitions, local and international competitions , and in the students products .The authority depends on some means , the most famous are ,the designers continuous encouragement ,grades given , and the explanation, in order to produce products responding to the era , through dealing with the design process , and the context used) . ).

Thermal Simulation of Custom Designed House to Test Application of New Cooling Methods

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 4, Issue 14, Pages 62-75

A traditional Iraqi house used to be compatible with climate and allows the users to live in a genealogically comfortable way in winter and summer. And because of the evolution of technology and contemporary housing demands, this kind of housing became inappropriate that led to the appearance of a new Iraqi house design which offers overall comfortable living but it cause a terrible loss of power for heating and cooling. Several new methods have been tested in the University of Technology in Baghdad to cool the building interior through cooling the structural envelope. The tests have been done on a test room that treated with some environmental solutions depending on evaporative cooling which consumes a less power then other cooling technologies. the results have been compared.
The solutions included using a cooled roof by(roof pond) plus evaporative cooler that cools the air over the roof pond and through a cavity wall. this particular research concentrates on experimenting the best tested solutions on an experimental modern house with 250 m2 ,4 bed rooms,2 bath rooms and court with internal garden covered with sun breakers. The house was supplied with water pond on roof, cavity walls cooled by evaporative air cooler and windows with double glazing to increase thermal insulation. The cooled air that came from both the roof and the wall flows into the court and goes out from the top. The results have been simulated by using Ecotect v5.2 computer program and it seems that this system would reduce the cooling load for such a house by 78% if cooled using compressor air conditioners to a temperature of(ordinary house). And 53% to reduce heat temp. less than 26 degree. The results also shows that most of the power savings happens in the 2nd floor because of the roof pond. This design also saves about 39% of the heating power in winter because of the air cavity in the roof and walls.
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Concepts in the Products of Students in the Iraqi Architectural Schools

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 4, Issue 14, Pages 97-123

Concepts are considered as an important part in the architectural design process and play a major role in achieving new and distinctive products. They are the life giving of architecture and represent a means to understanding the essence of the project. Forming concept is no easy way; it requires intensive and creative efforts. From reading previous studies on concepts and realizing their importance, and the problems that block skill development in conceptualizing for designers including architectural students, one easily realizes the lack in knowledge in the nature of concepts which is seen in the products of students in the Iraqi architectural schools.
This paper tries to point out the lack in a clear understanding of the nature of concepts in the products of students of Iraqi schools of architecture. The aim, therefore, is to explain this. The research procedure involves several steps, the first of which is setting an operational definition of concept in architecture and a comprehensive theoretical framework to pinpoint concepts in architectural products in general. Secondly, hypotheses are put forward and a sample for analysis is selected from the products of the third year students in the Department of Architecture of the University of Technology. Thirdly, results are analyzed and conclusions are drawn.
The research has reached two types of conclusions: The first is concerned with drawing up a theoretical framework of architectural concept in architectural products in general. The second type covers the results of analysis. The research concludes that the students, in general, are under the influence of contemporary international architectural trends in the field of creating distinctive and novel products, but the nature and degree of this influence vary. The research has also succeeded in defining the nature of students’ concepts in the field of each variable that has been tested, resulting in a new knowledge description.
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The Transformation within the Urban Structure

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 4, Issue 14, Pages 141-171

Urban transformation is one of the most dynamic properties for the city and its growth. The type of the functional and structural transformation assigns the approaches of thought of it inhabitants, if the transformation was natural, while it indicates serial of political and economical dissentions if it was a compulsory transformation.
The research affirmed upon studying the global transformation within the urban structure at the level of (part) and the level of (whole). Literatures review was made on research that dealt with concept of transformation in general and the transformation within the urban structure in particular. The research problem was defined as:” There is no obvious conception about the effect of the urban nodes on the global transformation within the urban structure, and the research hypothesis “urban nodes represent a transformation core within the urban structure”.
The urban nodes defined as; the parts of the urban structure that contain human activity as the soque or mosque in the Islamic cities, in addition to political and social nodes.
The research main goal was “defined the relation indicators and measurements between urban nodes and global structure of the city.

To achieve the research object the following methodology was adopted:
1- Deduce the theoretical frame for the concept of the transformation within the urban structure.
2- Explain the relation between the part and the whole within the urban structure.
3- Defined the indicators and measurements.
4- Examines the research hypothesis in actual urban structure.
The city of Sulaimaniya was chosen for the case study regards as a model for the urban structure that testified structural transformations at the part and the whole level.
By using the space syntax method and the applications of the GIS in urban analysis the research concluded that “the architectural nodes represent a transformation core within the urban structure when the transformation achieves global connections between local nodes that connected to the city collective memory, in order to create a globally integrated urban structure by connecting local nodes.
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Mechanism Of Contemporary Architectural Text(Analyzing View According To Symbol Concept)

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 4, Issue 14, Pages 198-210

Meaning of speech language achieved by symbolic it's items, so the symbolism is one of independent strategies which survive on dialog throw design process.
Although texts resulted from this strategies combined in goals, mechanism and creation style but they are characteristic to familiar and unfamiliar symbolic text. So the research problem represent in (there is no knowledge about how texts are characteristic to familiar and un familiar symbolic text and what are vocabularies identify each type). hypothesis of research is (architectural symbolic text characteristic to familiar and unfamiliar symbolic text according to vocabularies resulted from mechanism of architectural symbolic text). So the goal of this research is to explain the concept of familiar and unfamiliar symbolic text and to name the items which explain the framework of the research. Finally (symbol location in text, nature of language resulted from this location and which properties are be treated in these texts) represent the research result.
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Problematic of Reception at the Designer & (Receiver) In Architecture

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 4, Issue 14, Pages 48-61

Abstract The architectural designers bear certain qualities in the nature of their work which leads them a head in older to seek novelty, and as a man (human behavior) has aims which can be related to environment and society. The designers experience all those aims through fixed natural requirements, which can make him completely free in his invention. The relationship between designer and targets in the environment &society provides the flexibility needed in the design process
The search assumes that the mind of the designer through his level of knowledge (architectural) and the elements of style, mode, etc. provide many directives (tendencies) in the form which require investigation into the level of awareness on behalf of the designer. This invention can be seen in two levels: First, the awareness of satisfaction of the design through his knowledge; Second, the awareness of style and mode in order to impress the receiver (client) in his design .The research concentrates on the effective collaboration of the receiver and the inventor, all together, to affect an architectural result while the designer concentrates on the conviction gained on behalf of the receiver in the task.
In conclusion the search assumes the degree of the architectural results and their aesthetic values, the effect of these values on the receiver. And, architecture is not a blind imitation of the prerequisites ideas, but it is the reflection of the soul of the designer and his feeling interaction with those of the users within the aesthetic values of the end product .This brings us, to a statement on behalf of the receiver, designer; where the second takes off with the new in relation in design as a starter, while the first anticipates the results with admiration and management.
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Reduction Cooling Load Using Intelligent Envelope System

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 4, Issue 14, Pages 76-96

The nature of Iraqi climate which represents longevity the hot summer seasons, made almost
the buildings depend on mechanical services to remove the cooling loads and ensure a suitable conditions of human activity within it. Therefore and for the importance of topic many architecture researches in Iraq focused on searching practical solutions that could reduce the consumption in buildings through controlling the climate effect on these buildings, by following different strategies for cooling. The research has focused on active cooling strategies which contribute on a larger part to the reduction of the cooling load in the buildings through its providing with the disposition of adaptation and response.
This research has come as an attempt at the consolidation of that strategy through the activation of the response of the building envelope to the changing circumstances of the external environment by application of intelligent envelope system that includes a group of technologies works for the improvement of the thermal performance to the building.
For the purpose of the knowledge of the effect of the application of the system in the reduction of the cooling load in the building holding several applied tests using computer simulation program (Ecotect). And the test has taken place on a building that represents a model to residential house that designed with taking the view of consideration the most environmental criteria that advised on previous studies.
The research reached that the using of intelligent envelope system works for the reduction of the annual cooling loads by the rate of (24.97 %) which means the reduction of energy loss to quarter approximately. Hence this research comes as an attempt to give a clear conception to the designer about the benefit of the intelligent envelope system application and the encouragement on its use.
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The effect of Globalization Terrorism on ArchitectureProblematical of Architecture in Globalization Terrorism

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 4, Issue 14, Pages 124-140

It could be said; that the globalization during the last10-20 years, lead to the colonization of societies. The power and dominance practiced over the societies, indirectly, created some level fear in imitation. The study attempts to indicate the picture of globalization(in architecture)as a case of deliberate change to the nature of architectural thought in order to influence architectural modes in the societies.
The globalization terrorism in the world tends to bear some lack in architectural thoughts. The society live these international relationship, problem related to the absence of realization of the final effects on architectural results and it is related programs.
Globalization and terrorism of the societies in terms of ideologies tends to conflict their teams, within the results.Hence,the study explores the possibility of architectural thought incoming the reconciliation of two thoughts in terms of modern architecture, on other hand,
The study analysis the philosophical approach in the main comparison and results of globalization terrorism and it is influence on society.It shows that the dominance of European ideas on lower societies and their ideology is an attempts to invade local civilization. The analysis and the indication gathered from the above comparison defined the relationship between the world of globalization terrorism and the architectural effected through it is elements.
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The Change of Genotype in Old Traditional Areas in Baghdad CityAnalytical Study Using Geographic Information System

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 4, Issue 14, Pages 172-197

Change is the fact of being difference, or something to be in a state that not being before. Old traditional areas in Baghdad City have been encountered to many changes by the act of streets cut through, as a result of development process or comprehensive plans, which represents the research problem.
The research hypothesis is, the genotype of old traditional areas is changed by the act of streets cut through. The aim of this paper is to explore the changes in this genotype with specific reference to old traditional Al- Kadhemiyah and old Karkh, according to four morphological stages passed across.
The research findings where the genotype of old kadhemiyah in the first morphological stage was global integrated core around the Shrine. The most integrated spaces connect the center to the outside forming a wheel – liked pattern. The most segregated spaces form clusters, which are the interstices of the wheel. The shape has been changed to half wheel – liked pattern in the second morphological stage, and to a wheel pattern in the third morphological stage, after the streets cut through the area, and the demolition of the urban fabric around the Shrine. It was changed to a Spider form in the fourth morphological stage, with a globally integrated core, and segregated residential areas, which interstices the gaps within the shapes. The fourth stage genotype was a new one and not found within the known genotypes.
The most integrated spaces have been changed during the four morphological stages. The intelligibility of the spatial system has been changed from most ambiguous to more intelligible through the four morphological stages.
The genotype of old Al- Karkh area, At first stage was global integrated core at the center, the most integrated spaces connect the center to the outside forming a Pyramid pattern. The most segregated spaces form clusters, which are at both sides of the integrated core. This genotype was a new one and not found within the known genotypes.
This genotype has been changed, at the second morphological stage to a tree – like pattern integrated core linking the center to the outside, leaving segregated spaces on other sides of the integrated core, after the demolition of part of the fence and some street had been cut through the area. At the third morphological stage, the genotype is changed to inward- looking integrated heart, after the new streets had been cut through the area, and the area connection with Rusafah. Finally, it was changed to a tree- liked pattern at the fourth morphological stage, after Hayfa Street had been cut through the area. The intelligibility of the spatial system has been changed from most intelligible to most ambiguous through the four morphological stages.
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THE CONCEPT OF FOURTH DIMENSION IN LANDSCAPE

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 4, Issue 14, Pages 211-225

Landscape designer deals with three spatial dimensions, as well as with another dimension mentioned in design literatures. This dimension is the fourth dimension. Because of the absence of sufficient information about this concept, in the field of architecture, and particularly in landscape design . For the purpose of benefiting the landscape architects, and how to present and develop this dimension through the design process, and finding it in the final design. Search for this concept in different literature those specialized in research problem, so this research was aimed to clarify the concept of the fourth dimension briefly within the scientific, philosophical, artistic and architecture. Then, explain it with the landscape design, and find the most important characteristics which distinguished it so that the designer deals with it in landscape design. .