ISSN: 1999-1738

Volume 4, Issue 12

Volume 4, Issue 12, Spring 2008, Page 45-230


The Relationship between Theoretical Concepts and Architecture

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 45-61

Throughout history, man has questioned the existence of (phenomenas) that surrounds him, with the intention of finding convincing answers that could verify and generalize these events. His aim was to formulate a mental reality which could frame up these (phenomenas) in a theoretical discourse of his understanding. Architecture was distinguished by utilizing various projections on its reality in order to create its theoretical framework. This rollows a variety of references and sources. As a result, it contained various factors to match the intellectual demands of any period.
To understand the influence of variety in the theoretical input of architecture, this paper evaluates general and specific issues relevant to theoretical understanding. Subsequently, this paper deals with the application of the verify of theoretical presentation. Hence the problem is covered through two types of presentational concepts: an intellectual framework relevant to the research problem; and a philosophical framework that could verify the multiplicity of theoretical understanding. Various findings and conclusions where presented for the two types of framework.
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Utilizing a cooled Roof to Increase Thermal Performance of The building

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 92-104

The purpose of this paper is to test the use of an evaporative air cooler to cool the roof of a building. It was hoped that this would reduce the temperature inside the building and the cooling load as well when a compressor air conditioning unit is installed.
Evaporative cooling is cheap and only uses a fraction of the power that compressor units do. Furthermore its cooling effect increases with the rise in temperature and drop in humidity, conditions that prevail in large parts of Iraq including Baghdad.
The test included setting up a thermally insulated compartment above a room inside the campus of the University of Technology. The compartment was cooled by an evaporative cooler. The walls of the room were insulated by adding a 2cm layer of Styrofoam as well as a 10cm air cavity. The readings were taken after three days of operation.
The results showed that the combination of roof cooling and wall insulation resulted in a 5.5oC drop in inside temperature. Further calculations showed that this would reduce the cooling load on a compressor air condition by around 38%.
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Spatial Configuration Characteristics of Religious BuildingsA Comparative Study of Cult Buildings in Selected Civilizations

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 105-127

The relation between cult and space in religious buildings was considered as an important issue in different previous studies, which had confırmed, explicitly and implicitly, the role of cult ceremonies in the formulation of religious architecture, especially cult buildings. Cult ceremonies usually define the activities of the social system occupying religious buildings, and those activities find their reflection in the nature of the spaces of those buildings and what is widely known as (Spatial Configuration).
This research is a comparative study aiming to define the nature of variation between Islamic mosques, ancient Egyptian and Iraqi temples in terms of spatial configuration. These cult buildings were chosen from very different civilizations in order to capture the variation easily.
The method adopted to realize the goal of this research starts by defining the characteristics of the spatial configuration as criteria for comparison, presenting how to measure them, choosing (13) Islamic mosques, (4) Egyptian and (4) Iraqi temples as a sample to be studied empirically, and finally presenting the final conclusions.
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Night Lighting In Architecture

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 143-160

Lighting Consider one of the most important subject which is still a productive field for researches and architectural studies, which provides by it's two types (Natural and artificial) and different field which studied throw it's important results participate in supporting architectural movement continuously.
Resent studies have show very important sides from lighting caricaturized by night lighting and its rules in adding effective steps for the projects.
The beauty of the night seen connected enhance the feelings of place be longing.
Good night lighting considered on of the most important criteria which connected to the achievement of architectural identity, so the research interested in discussing and analyzing this process and studying it discovering the conceptual framework and reaching the final conclusions of research.

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The Impact of the Designer in the architectural outcomeArchitectural Education Projects

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 175-189

. A theory was subjected ;as an attempt to study the architectural circulation as an education media; That, the impact of the projects in the circulate , where , these projects were designed as to improve the intellectual abilities of the students , different from traditional approach ; produced results in a kind of architecture which alien to the goals. The intention of such intel-lectual circulation meant to develop the aesthetic values of the student within the teaching medium.
Teachers attempt to look for teaching medias that can be related to Society, Education, Histo-ry, as main ingredients in their teaching, in order to prepare students who have super qualities and abilities (Moral, Economic, etc,)to produce new architecture ,even when it may disagree with European students.
Result in architectural movements; designers experience during their practice will be based on the principles of modern movement in architecture. It is seen that the results of modern archi-tecture is related, horizontally to historical background and theoretical knowledge; and verti-cally with the intentions of the designers i.e. his method and style. Hence, architectural educa-tion doesn't include only original concepts based on past know-how but also on serious of tal-ent and self assurance on behalf of the designers in order to reach to a positive identity (stu-dent architect).

Sustainability Principals of Traditional Architecture in the Islamic Perception

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 74-91

Undoubtedly, Islam contains many sustainability and environment conservations indicators that integrated with the social values and human behaviour of the Moslems society. The concept of environment in the Islamic perception means more than the simple enumeration of its components or those of the ecological system; it transcends this to establish a link between these components and the human factor. Thus, built environment in the Islamic World was a reflection of Moslems view to environment as living entity. This view is materialized in different levels whether in the city planning or architectural design that was shaped by the beliefs and actions of inhabitants who adhered to the Islam as a way of life with social ideals. This research aims to study the sustainability potential in the traditional architecture in the Arab World: especially the house.

Research methodology depends on analytic approach to environmental solutions in the traditional house from sustainability standpoint. In addition, research depends on procedural approach to the survey measurements taken to case study samples to traditional and modern houses in Baghdad.

Spatial Configuration Characteristics of Religious BuildingsA Comparative Study of Cult Buildings in Selected Civilizations

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 105-127

The relation between cult and space in religious buildings was considered as an important issue in different previous studies, which had confırmed, explicitly and implicitly, the role of cult ceremonies in the formulation of religious architecture, especially cult buildings. Cult ceremonies usually define the activities of the social system occupying religious buildings, and those activities find their reflection in the nature of the spaces of those buildings and what is widely known as (Spatial Configuration).
This research is a comparative study aiming to define the nature of variation between Islamic mosques, ancient Egyptian and Iraqi temples in terms of spatial configuration. These cult buildings were chosen from very different civilizations in order to capture the variation easily.
The method adopted to realize the goal of this research starts by defining the characteristics of the spatial configuration as criteria for comparison, presenting how to measure them, choosing (13) Islamic mosques, (4) Egyptian and (4) Iraqi temples as a sample to be studied empirically, and finally presenting the final conclusions.
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THE EFFECT OF THE OUTSIDE DESIGN ELEMENTS IN DAYLIGHT LEVELS IMPACT ON WINDOWS

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 128-142

The architects recognize the role of environmental elements (specially the daylight) in reach to successful design achieving better user's performance. The daylight goes to the essence of architectural work by helping to inspire the spaces with their shapes, colors, touches and surfaces.
The aim of this research is to determine the fundamental step in daylight design, by measuring the daylight impact on windows. This light is the main source in lighting interior space after it's through the glass panel of window and diffuse in space. So, it's possible to increase interior light level by controlling the external daylight impact on window.
To reach the research's aim, dividing made on the theoretical frame by two steps:
First: Admeasure the amount of sky light impact on window.
Second: Admeasure the effects of outside designing elements added to windows (such as: shadow devices, thickness of external wall and all characteristic surfaces near window), and these elements will perform in two ways:
- Avoiding partial of sky light reach window.
- Reflect some of direct sun light and sky light to window.
The research directed to mathematical method by designing computer program to solve the effect of these design variables. After application the program on different design cases of windows, the research finds that it's possible by choosing the suitable design elements near the window, relative balance will be achieve in lighting level impact on windows in different orientations.
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PRINCIPLE OF CORRESPONDENCY IN CONTEXT OF ARCHITECTURE

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 161-174

The research concentrates on Communication which forms one of the main criteria in the design process, Particular attention is given to the user rather than the designer "Architect”;The architectural output process can be represented in two poles; the first, the individual element as designer ,while the other pole, represents the social output as thinker user. But the design process occurs in a much wider range than the two poles. And involved the context that achieved the output. It appears more than one context determined the relationship between parties in the process of design as a designer context, user context, and output context, and that contexts form corresponding aimed to : expression,convincement,and improvement. The problem which the research concentrated on it is “which one from the three corresponding that appear between the parties in the process of design attempted architecture to achieve it". The search is trying to explore which one of these contexts successfully to the objectives in order to accomplish architectural communication properly and sufficiently. The study aims at identifying the corresponding in architecture and underline the relationship, the priorities among the designer, the user, and the output in architecture and the corresponding resulted between them. The study concludes , that the architectural products depends on the developments of the architectural outputs. .

The Nature Imitation Strategy and the Sustainable Architectural Form – Analytical Study for Organic FormsThrough The Architectural Product of Eguen Tsui

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, 2008, Volume 4, Issue 12, Pages 0-0

Literature review showed that sustainability is a phenomenon which had been studied in different disciplines, particularly in architecture. These studies showed that the aim of architectural sustainability is the integration between buildings and environment.
Literature review mentioned the role of nature imitation strategy in the generating of sustainable form, whose characters effects on the building efficiency and ,provide comfort to its users , but this had not been studied in practice.
The research problem was, there was a gap in the relationship between the organic sustainable architectural form and the nature imitation strategy, as one of sustainability strategies. So the aim of this paper is to study this gap in the scientific knowledge.
The research hypothesis was (The organic sustainable architectural form is varied in its relation with site topography and context , also it is varied in its relation with the materials used , the energy resources , the techniques used in its formal and technological treatment .Finally it is varied in its resistance to the natural conditions.
The research findings were that, all types of the organic forms had been used in the composition of sustainable form except the plant form. The organic form had imitating the context rather than the topography.
The main materials used were, the wood as natural material, the concrete as a manufactured material and the isolated material as a remanufactured one.
The solar energy was the more energy used, the aim of its using was heat gain.
The formal composition was the main formal treatment, while the solar cells were the main technological one.
The aim of these treatments was the sustainable organic form resistant to the natural conditions, such as heat, ream, windstorm, floods, and burn.
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