ISSN: 1999-1738

Volume 5, Issue 16

Volume 5, Issue 16, Autumn 2009, Page 45-320


DESIGN FOR DAYLIGHT WINDOWS IN ARCHITECTURAL SPACES

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 45-59

The daylight was and still one of the most important means and could put human in touch with his environment and architecture.
The aim of this research is to determine the proper design of window's area which achieves suitable level of daylight in Architectural spaces of Baghdad city. This area of window relate to the change of interior and exterior design characteristic with addition to the suitable light level for users and their activities.
The research treats windows in the same way followed in methods of designing artificial lighting and determining power size of electric lamp.
Because it's difficult to compute all the variables relate to this subject manually, the research depends on the (Microsoft Excel Program) to solve all design and environmental variables relate to daylight. The results were caring in:
First: determining area of windows suitable to spaces, after supplying the values of designing variables and environmental variables including the lighting level suitable to space.
Second: estimate the average daylight level in the space, after supplying the values of designing variable and environmental variable including the area of windows.
The conclusions of this research relate to determine the suitable areas of windows in spaces according to their characteristics design, and the possibility to improve the performance efficient of daylight in architectural spaces..

The Effect of The formal and Organizational Properties onthe Aesthetic Evaluation of the Architectural Design Project"According to the specialty of the Iraqi Academic Experience"

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 83-103

Evaluation as a general concept in the academic field are considered to be one of
the most important aspects in the architectural design domain from the beginning of
the process of designing a project until the final presentation in the academic field.So
this research mainly concentrates on the evaluation concept and specially on the
Aesthetic evaluation of the architectural design in relation with the formal and
organizational properties on the project therefore the research special problem can be
set out as "the lack in a clear understanding of the effect of the formal and
organizational properties of the design in the Aesthetic evaluation in the academic
field ".and from the review of the previous literature and studies ,the research came
out with a theoretical frame work ,describes the effect of the formal and
organizational properties of the design on the Aesthetic evaluation of it ,then forming
the hypothesis of the research and put it for the experience and application in the
academic field in Iraq" the four first stages in university of technology Baghdad". the
results are analyzed with" Microsoft EXCEL "computer program ,then the
conclusions are drown..

Excerption and inclusion in language and architecture

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 129-150

Excerption and inclusion are two terms in Arabic rhetoric. The excerption is defined as a taking a part of text from Holly Quran or Hadith and put it in a poem, verse line, or put it in a prose text. But the linguistics expand the concept of this term to include taking from another sciences and knowledge, like Grammar, Philology, and Prosody.
Inclusion is defined as taking a verse line or part of verse line from another poet to put it in a new poem, it is necessary that the poet who take the text should declare it, and if he hides it, it will be plagiarism.
This search is use these two terms in architecture, we have now new two terms in architecture, first one; architectural excerption, it means the designer takes a part of religious or historical building and put it in his new design. The designer also can take from another sciences and knowledge, like physics, mathematics, or schools of modern criticism like deconstruction, to put his new design. The second term (architectural inclusion) means the designer takes a part of another modern design, neither religious nor historical, if he hides this, it is considered as architectural plagiarism.
The search proved that there are many architectural designs which include the meaning of these two terms.
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Effect of the Geometry of the Roof on the efficiency of Thermal Performance (The city of Baghdad Case Study)

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 168-183

Many studies have focused on efficiency placed climate of buildings by controlling a forms, but it did not address the geometry of the roof in particular led to the emergence of the research problem in the lack of clarity in the role of the geometry of the roof influence the efficiency of the thermal performance of buildings with the roof exposed to solar radiation. This research aims to evaluate the thermal performance of a geometric form of the roof in the hot, dry, Iraq, as well as to resolve some aspects of the debate about the efficiency of the thermal performance of the roof. The research was based on the premise that: affect the geometry of the roof in the heat exchange in different angles of incidence of solar radiation in the buildings in Iraq.
To achieve the aim of research, support search comparative analytical approach for a number of case studies has been building model default to deport 10m x 10m x 3m, and make detailed calculations of the heat gain of a variable quantity of major solar radiation affecting the ceiling (pitch, gable, dome) and compare it with the ceiling level most common in Iraq, and compare those results with a computer energy simulation programs (Ecotect).
The results of the research that there is a shortage of energy transmitted to the vaulted roof ceiling level comparing with up to 11.036%, while the pitched roof there is an increase in energy transition up to 10.490%, while the gable roof is the highest increase up to 13.756%, the research found a simple curves to help designers to determine the acquisition warming of the roof in its various forms.
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The General Knowledge Frame For Dualism OfTheory And Traditions in Architecture

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 194-213

Contemporary studies has been focused on studying and adopting the dualism concept as a fundamental indicator to sustain the principles, indices, and meanings which form the intellectual state of any context and explain a perspective which depends on conflation and implication for the principles of life constructing in many studies and perspectives both in an included and declared form. In this field, explanation of dualities as a condition of containment of common contradiction of a certain image extended through a range of contradiction and conflict indicating a design principle utilized in architecture.
This research aimed to explain and define the principles of theory and traditions in architecture by presented them as an established condition which included in architectural knowledge systems, then explained its common interchangeability in both interlocution and interaction states for the identical and the other. Then the study continued to explicitly represent the architectural framework which concerns with the association condition of duality extended in the range of plurality and singularity, and establishing the context of standardization and execution condition as a common perspective. The research then identified the problem area and its objective and methodology in constructing the epistemic framework which was represented by the common creative framework for theory and traditions duality. Finally, general and special results were studied, analyzed and discussed in order to explore the general and detailed conclusions.
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Levels of Creative Addition and its Characteristics in Contemporary Iraqi Architecture

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 233-261

Addition is regarded as one of the important concepts which has accompanied human culture from time memorial in its various aspects of thinking, science, and art.

Thus, addition in architecture which represents a cultural product embodying man’s thought, his social needs and demands was reflected in theory and practice through different historical era. Each era added to the previous one something new and distinctive serving development and growth. At present, the importance of this concept has emerged after an increased call to invest in the heritage and re-employ it in new attempts after adding to it, thus achieving an architecture that keeps up with progress and development, as manifested in all fields of life.

The issue of this paper pointed out the lack of knowledge a bout the creative nature of addition, which is connected to the designer in Contemporary Iraqi Architecture.Thus; the main goal of this research is to give the most efficient and clearest image to define this nature. The research has adopted four main steps which cover firstly theoretical study of creative product. Secondly, a comprehensive conceptual framework is built to describe creative nature of addition in architecture (its levels and characteristics). Thirdly, this framework is applied to selected examples of contemporary architecture in Iraq to extract the nature of creative addition.

In this research we found the special feature of addition in contemporary Iraqi architectural products has been explored because it is a creative and inventive addition with derivative nature at the conceptual and physical levels, by adopting assembly technique to achieve original and appropriate addition taking into consideration theoretical content and the nature of form elements.
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The spatial symbol dynamic nature in Architecture

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 285-299

Contemporary architectural studies have focused on studying the symbol concept which are characterized by focusing on the aspects of meanings, denotations, and bifurcation in a detailed eloquence . At the same time there is no focusing on the possibility of studying the spatial frame of the symbol in a separate form in order to extend knowledge which is concerned with the revelation and creative possibilities of finding a special spatial symbolic perspective according to its dynamic nature.
Therefore this research aims to find and define an actual need to a getaway towards this subject in order to understand and present its numerous perspectives in its aim to extend a theoretical base of knowledge. The research ,also to define a general frame for the spatial symbol in architecture and then studying the formation of symbol of the spatial event and its dynamic nature, forming a theoretical frame represented by models of knowledge of the stable and unstable (creative) forms also form the state of the spatial symbol in architecture, and applies them to a selected architecture outputs. Analyzing of the results of application the forms of the established spatial symbols. Finally the research presents the final conclusions and recommendations.
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The Architectural Design Between Creation and Methodology.

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 300-320

The cotemporary thesis focused on studying design operation and concept by many view which distinguish by obligated one science side in the studying like creation, method, design elements….etc. That what remote the knowledge and thoughtfully production par the totality in limited and understand characters and properties for this concept, in the same time amplifier the knowledge base about one side alone except the other by form make it disconnect par other sides. To missed the knowledge and thoughtfully relationship which can be in case study in related form with others.
All that makes the real base and need for the research beginning and aims to understand and show totality which are came from study the design concept by depend two basic side relationships in it they are the creation side and the methodology side.
This research aim is to identify the general basic for design concept in the light of linking the creative and methodology nature for it. Thus the research begin by submitted the knowledge about the two earlier sides, to declare and submit the research problem which represented by " Non being total knowledge view for the relationship between creative and methodology sides for the design operation " and its goal which represented by this knowledge view, and then go to search and discuss the early studies about them for theoretical construction which represent dual knowledge imagination .Will be practice it on the individual knowledge models by intent submit and analysis results of this practice and discover achieved the types of the relation between the two earlier sides in these models on two levels (individual and Varity), beside submit the final conclusions and recommendations.
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Formal Transformation in Urban Context Analytical Study to the Formal Transformation in Urban Context By using the remote sensing

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 60-82

Many researchers interest directed to study the urban context as one of important concept to achieve temporal and spatial continuity in urban environment and link the building with neighboring.
The paper deals with urban context as:-
integral contain apposes clear orders and also statue procedural definition it is contain of potential and outstanding orders which instituted from joined parts in urban fabric, linked together in potential relations and bear urban and cultural values posses formal conduct, coinciding functional and rotating and bear association deliberative meanings the potential in shared between the parte and the whole and the outstanding in formal properties and vision for elements which undergo for natural and coactive transformation on the two dimensional and three dimensional level.
The outstanding order represents visual formal for urban context and the potential order represented in whole and partial syntax properties behind visible phenomena.
The research confirm upon studying the transformation in formal properties within the urban context by subtract ideas, studies of transformation in formal properties on the level of the whole or part within the urban context , with this prospective the paper problem determined as: " There is no obvious conception about transformation nature in formal properties of urban context ”.

The paper hypothesis” the transformation in formal properties within the urban context at the level of whole causes the formal transformation in properties at the level of parts. ” was tested in real urban context represent by Ancient Damascus City in Syria as one of the important urbanite and heritage element which has different type of context and it crouch to economic ,society and physics conditions.
The formal indicators was defined and measured by using (GIS) techniques in drawings and Analyzing visual and link formal properties on the level of the whole or part, the paper concluded that deforming transformation in urban context may cause the transformation in the context identity but it also achieve formal homogeneity and prevent the urban chaos, when urban gradual growth and transformation may cause formal heterogeneity if building roles was not controlling the transformation process and organize the. the urban mix between old and new buildings.
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Intelligent Tropical BuildingsA Study of the Eco-Technological Integration Effects on Reducing the Economicaland Environmental Costs

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 104-128

In the last few years, a number of studies highlighted the two concepts of "Technology" and "Ecology", which may seem at a glance as being in contradiction. The "Technological" approach represented by the "intelligent buildings" is investing the new scientific and technological advances to achieve adaptation with the ever changing man needs, provide comfortable internal environment, and responding to external environment effects but without taking into consideration the context and the environmental content surrounding these buildings. This has led to ignorance of the project site nature and the surrounding environment. This has formed the general boundaries of my study. Because of the growing use of modern technological facilities to control the environment, the "Ecological" approach is being overlooked or ignored. It calls for the nature's own capabilities and to decrease the dependence on technology as much as possible, this has led to compromising the standards of modern comfort. In fact this approach aims at more than controlling the atmosphere and providing comfort, it's a comprehensive approach that aims at integrating the building with the surrounding ecological system, rather than being isolated from, or parasiting on the surrounding ecological systems. Therefore and in order to get benefit of the opportunities provided by both approaches and avoided their drawbacks, a third approach has been investigated in my study, namely "the integrational approach" and is represented by the "Intelligent Tropical buildings" which are defined as: those buildings that gather between intelligent buildings (with its included technology) and ecological buildings (with its integration and attempted preservation of the environment) with integrational relationships in order to achieve the ecologic-cultural integration through integration between ecological and technological systems of the building. So, basic elements of these buildings were set as: technology, ecology, and integration.
Studying these elements as designing approaches and discussing previous studies in the same field, the study was able to pinpoint some aspects of contradiction and shortage. Contradiction lies in regarding buildings as ecological and need technology to improve performance, the concept that is adopted by most of the studies investigating ecological-technological integration. However, most contemporary architecture studies point that the ecological considerations in buildings were ignored due to the dependence on technological facilities. As for the shortage, it is represented by the cost aspects. From here emerged the research problem concentrating on the defective aspects of the previous studies, and was labeled as "The effect of the eco-technological integration on the intelligent building cost".
In order to identify the effect of this integration on buildings costs, the research depended on an approach based on setting parameters for the intelligent tropical buildings and subjecting few elected parameters to practical tests using the simulation program "Ecotect". To give a wider perspective, the research has gone further than the direct economic costs; it performed several tests that would show the ecological costs of the building and the possibility to minimize them considering these parameters. The results were put into graphs and tables. Results have shown the possibility of minimizing construction costs by 23.39-3.8%, 43.38-7.87% of operational cost, in addition to decrease thermal exchange of the building envelope by ratios reaching to 46% for conduction gain, 49.52% for conduction loss, 92.85% for solar air gain, 14.04% for solar gain, and 43.38% of Co2 emission resulting from conditioning energy, according to facilities used. In addition to reduction by 76.18% of Co2 resulted from main building materials. This indicates the efficacy of the elected parameters for the eco-technological integration in achieving economical and ecological efficiency of the building.
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Graphic Techniques for Developing Creativity in Architectural Design

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 151-167

The contemporary world is marked by the phenomenon of the rapid changes in all fields of human knowledge. The architecture of future will still be the most confusing and puzzling issue and misgivings that a rouse worry and leading to the spirit of adventures to make progress and arrive at the ways of revival, creativity and modernism. The idea of prevailing of certain culture or certain product in architecture depends on the given and available techniques, due to the fact that the computer and their graphic techniques become very important and vital to reinforce the image in architectural design. Thus, it is very necessarily to link between these techniques and suitable way to reform the mentality by which the architecture will be reformed, from what has been said, (there has no utilization for the whole modern and available graphic techniques in design processes for developing the creativity in architectural design).
In the preparatory stages of the architectural design processes, the designer is in search for basic solutions connected to the design method. Therefore, in the architectural design process, the graphic technique plays the vital and important role in developing the preparatory concept and the external representation of the design concepts, The graphic techniques and their representations can be regarded as tools of demonstrating concepts in the architectural design, in which the creation of concepts in the design is one of the necessary and creative tasks of the designer. Accordingly, the objective thesis can be shown in (developing the ways to utilize and exploit the recent graphic techniques of computer for developing the creativity in architectural design). The creative processes in the design with the aid of computer have been defined as processes that present new designing variables to the design processes. As a result, the purpose of these creative products must be innovated, and unlike other products and these products must be of high value and understandable as well. Moreover, the creation lies in achieving the two-sides of equation (i.e., Novelty and Value) in that they will be fulfilled on the basis of the hypothesis of the thesis (i.e.,it is possible that the designer can utilize the raster-image programmers as a creative tool for the designer).On the one hand, the value can be achieved by using previous formal references in the preparatory concept of the project; on the other hand, the novelty can be achieved by adopted methodology in the design process. as a result of that; this adopted methodology in this thesis will be achieved by using Photoshop programs and additional and annexed filters of the program in which the thesis will deal with it by designing methodology and the designer will apply them on a group of projects which are designed by the researcher and these projects are of preparatory concepts as a first part of the practical study includes selection a group of third-class students, department of architectural engineering, university of technology. This designing methodology will be applied on private projects which are also in the preparatory concept.The research has arrived at the seriousness and importance of utilizing Photoshop programs and additional and annexed filters connected with it in generating creation forms in architectural design process which can be shown on the level of the plan.
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The Effect of Design on Reading Architectural Education Projects

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 184-193

The architectural critics based on unfamiliar concepts and their use in design; the rapid change in technology and the requisites in design have caused progress may be slow. These require longer periods in order to affect architectural themes. They also are so unique that they almost defy their basic element.
Contrast between actual design work and it is criticism produced directives in complete design work in a form of inventions. On the other side; the effect of critics on complete design equations through about individual results within it is expression.
The research seek; the relationship between the ability in reading architectural projects, for 5th year students. University of technology, where always looked for new themes. Those projects reflected a conflict between the criticism in architecture and architectural movements in our time. The research reached a conclusion that the critics in architectural projects were an attempt as to expose the external (superficial) feature of the project while the internal remained unexploited.
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The Aesthetics of Ugliness in Architecture

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 214-232

The concept "aesthetics of ugliness" is considered to be one of the post-modernism treatises. The meaning of "aesthetics" is more comprehensive it encompasses numerous other concepts, e.g. those of beauty, ugliness, sublime…
Many studies were generally concerned with the concept of ugliness (especially in the field of architecture) from different perspectives, and in a brief and inclusive way. The research problem focused on the absence of a clear definition of the concept of aesthetic ugliness and its role in the aesthetic experience of architecture, and this is what the present research aims to discover. Depending on the research hypothesis which states that there is a relation between aesthetic ugliness and aesthetic appreciation of architecture. The importance of the research arises from comprehending the measures and bases of aesthetic evaluation that are more diverse, and increasing the possibility of attaining the pleasure of the aesthetic appreciation of architecture. As to the research methodology, the study of aesthetic ugliness hinges on two main axes. The first deals with the construction of a theoretical data base to define the concept of aesthetic ugliness by investigating and analyzing the treatises and the existing literature in the various fields of knowledge that involved the concept directly or indirectly. In the second, the aforementioned data base is invested and enhanced by the architectural treatises and studies for extracting the specialty of the aesthetic ugliness concept in architecture.
The conclusion of this research is that (ugliness) has aesthetic values that can be discovered through aesthetic judgment of architectural products by appreciating and criticizing the aesthetic experience according to critical aesthetic bases (subjective, objective or both), as a wider perspective of the aesthetic phenomenon in architecture.
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The Role of Texture on Perceptual Attributes in interior architecture spaces

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 262-284

Many ideas concentrate on the subject of the texture in interior architecture spaces, and consider it the basic design vocabulary, but it did not appear a clear image about the effect of varying texture qualities on perceptual attributes in interior architecture spaces. Therefore the problem was limited; while littleness of the scientific knowledge about the role of texture on perceptual attributes in interior architecture spaces. The research tries to discover the role of texture on perceptual attributes in interior architecture spaces, assuming the effect of interior architecture spaces perception by texture.
To solve the research problem a theoretical prototype was assembled by the texture, perceptual attributes, and interior architecture space.
The provisional research depend on the descriptive surveying card as a tool for examination, 4-interior architecture spaces, were deliberately chosen, as a research group and 20 persons as responding group, the perspective shot was used as an analysis unit , the results were collected from 4-survial phases, and T-test analysis was used to deal with the statistical-data, using Spss program.
The texture qualities certain excitement dimension data analysis have cleared the sequence importance of natural texture qualities having smooth and rough textures firstly, natural and industrial texture qualities having smooth textures secondly, then the natural texture qualities having smooth textures. While the texture qualities certain interesting dimension data analysis have proved the sequence importance of natural and industrial texture qualities having smooth textures firstly, natural texture qualities having smooth and rough textures secondly, then the natural texture qualities having smooth textures.
Lastly, the conclusion show the effectively of natural texture qualities having smooth textures, smooth and rough textures in realization the dimensions of interesting and excitement in interior space, while the conclusion cleared the weakness of texture qualities having rough textures in realization the perceptual attributes in interior space
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Imitation Form Strategy of Nature in Traditional Arabic City

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 5, Issue 16, Pages 300-331

A man today practiced many attacks on the environment that exceeding from its nature
and scope than of past generations practice. He has create, a new, transformer environment
that includes the Technology progress, and imposes itself upon him. It's always requiring
efforts to changes and adaptation. The combination of loss of nature contact, the traditional
life environment , sudden break with the past, and to reject the broad tradition – which was
rising on a pilot basis not without reason – that rise feelings of anxiety and lack of roots in the
modern humans.
Many studies noted to numerous attempts to understand the nature and simulation and
not to be fought, but mast be brought to the design as an active, creative force, (nature must
not be rejected, but has to be embraced). The study of models that include events and
forms that occur regularly in nature is the key to orientation of sustainable design, but
these studies associated mainly with western architecture and its orientation ( in particular,
local studies ). The orientation did not receive adequate installment from research and
analysis with respect to Arabian architecture and the Traditional Arabic city specifically that
necessitated this research. The problem of research states that " there is no sufficient
knowledge about the Traditional Arabian city relationship nature with nature imitation
strategy as one of sustainable strategies ", and the objective of this research was to determine
this relationship.
The research shows the effectiveness of methods indicators of form that imitate the nature
in the Traditional Arabic city with regard to the solutions grow from Place, firstly in terms of
natural factors and cultural ( social climate ); and ecological accounting inform Design,
Secondly, with regard to self – normal systems of the buildings composition, interface design,
solar control, natural lighting and ventilation; in addition to recycling and their impact on
imitation strategy of nature..