ISSN: 1999-1738

Volume 6, Issue 19

Volume 6, Issue 19, Autumn 2010, Page 23-500

Housing Development, Its Dimensions and Its Constituents

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 35-53

This paper studies housing development phenomenon, it's social, environmental and economical dimensions, as well as its urban design and planning constituents. The research assumes that, the housing development not verified, only by the existence of these two constituents with the previous mentioned dimensions.
Literature review showed that there was a gap in the concept of housing development locally, so the aim of this paper is to bridge this gap. The research hypothesis was "the housing development is an integration of social, environmental and economic dimensions, within urban design and planning constituents".
The research defines the housing development as keeping the residential environment not destroyed ,but has the ability to sustain its social and economic structures, and develop the valuable built environment,( such as the social, social/ spatial values), within urban design and planning constituents.
The research has built a theoretical framework defined the housing development, tried to project it on local and international projects. The local project was (Abu Noaas project / Baghdad), while the international example was (Bo01) in Sweden.
The main findings were that the local housing development verified some social / spatial values such as, variety, privacy and flexibility, while the international housing development verified another social/ spatial values such as choice, permeability , variety, privacy, surveillance, flexibility and energy efficiency
Locally the housing development ensured some environmental dimensions such as correct orientation, using renewable resources such as solar energy, while the international housing development used all types of renewable resources, such as solar energy, photovoltaic cells, and biodiversity.
From economic dimensions point of view, the local and international housing development were affordable, as the projects were distinguished by goodness and firmness. The plans were modular coordinated, had determined functions.
The urban design constituents had legible presence in international housing development, presented by respecting site and setting, context, using spatial hierarchy, easy access, ensuring linkages. Locally the site, setting and context only, were respected also and taken into considerations.
The planning constituents had legible presence in the international housing development in all its values such as, reducing resources consumption, using high densities, protecting the environmental capital resources ,through Brownfield's development, ensuring pedestrian movement and public transport. Locally other items were taken into consideration represented by conservation and infill sites together with the new development.

The role of housing in the random events of the phenomenon of visual pollution Case study "Um alwarid " in AL-Jadirya quarter.

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 73-100

Increasing the breadth of the phenomenon of slums in the cities has generated a lot of problems between the problems of physical and social, economic, and return multiple problems to the complexity of the causes giving rise between economic and social reasons, cultural, noting that the results have exceeded these aspects to cause a display of environmental pollution of visual pollution, which is one of the most dangerous types of pollution because it is more pronounced and affects the psychological equilibrium and aesthetic for the viewer. Have contributed to the extension of population non-planned, multi-migration to the deterioration of social values and norms and the emergence of social behavior and economic Incorrect either to lack of economic resources or lack of social and cultural awareness of the population to find a physical environment random lacks coherence and harmony and overlapping of the aesthetic with the chaos to form the phenomenon of visual pollution. What matters research is the proliferation of slums and their role in causing the phenomenon of visual pollution in the city lose its character architect planned to highlight cultural identity and replace urban environment random-infested manifestations of overtaking on the laws and zoning regulations, abuse, and additions to non-homogeneous residential buildings with around. .

The Trace of Floor Area Ratio(F.A.R.)Change on the Dwelling Unit Environment(Casa Study: neighborhood #427/ Al-Kadhimya)

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 120-135

In spite of the awareness of the researchers the importance of the preparation of living environment (private or public) which is appropriate for a person to ensure a better life in the social, physical and psychological that have been emerged in communities. A lot of studies have been taken in many countries in the world including Iraq, which used various planning tools to control the size of building in terms of number of existing housing units, quality and services to be provided within the housing unit and beyond it, in excess of inclusion delimiters and controls within the laws of building construction, including: determining the area of construction, height and proportion of converting the area of land, using it as one of the structural density (F.A.R.) of appropriate planning tools.
The absence of building controls or hindering them would lead to transgression in which it would violate the environment of the residential unit, the adoption of certain decisions by the municipality of Baghdad, as such as those related to allow the construction of a third floor (as well as the ground and first floor) requires serious studies of what would otherwise the residential areas would be, add to that, the lack of enlightenment of planning to the population which has an effect on the changes of the structural density (the Floor Area Ratio F.A.R.).
Hence the importance of studying the "Floor Area Ratio F.A.R." and focus on its role in providing an appropriate environment for a residential unit through an awareness of the most important changes in the environment of the residential unit as a result of a number of reasons or factors that helped to change the "Floor Area Ratio F.A.R." following the analytical approach to the neighborhood # (427) in Al-Kadhimya as selected sample in Baghdad, and study the change in the environment of the residential unit at the beginning of its establishment, and up to the present time through the collection of information contained four themes concerning: family, residential segment, the residential unit and the evaluation of the residential unit of their respective owners. So it was reached on a set of conclusions and recommendations related to the subject of the study.


The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 154-170

The most common problems in big cities is the high rate of residency because of the high population growth, therefore, It is a big problem nowadays to a family to get a suitable accommodation (general problem),but for the Iraqi family one of the most important priority is to get their own accommodation, and to achieve this target, the cost of accommodation ought to be low so it will be more easy for families , thus the specific problem is the difficulty of owing a dwelling unit with acceptable cost .Though the research problem is :there is no clear idea about the effect of some design decisions of raising the cost of the dwelling unit ,therefore the aim of the research is to determine the effect of some design decisions of raising the cost of dwelling unit.
The research depends on analysis of samples of dwelling units by a comparison the quantities of same unit, once with these decisions, other without them, with fixing the same requirements in each unit to clarify the rate of waste in final cost that come from accumulation the cost of these decisions that one who wants to own a dwelling unit unconscious for their influence on the final cost. Finally the influence of these decisions are increase in the small area of units .

Designer’s awareness in Architecture Products

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 200-212

There is an effective difference on the visual status of a designer when formulating architectural forms as products, ‘within the relations of the internal contents of these forms’ through the relations of the forms with their meaning. The complete visualization of the designer with meanings and the objectives of the forms.
The research consent was on the lack of visualizing the possible changes in forming the products that can be achieved depending on the opposition of movements where they refuse traditional coping in forming programs related to architectural trends.This paper is searching for new two movement which refuses the old tradition in order to start a new age as a reflection to existing conditions and coping what is essential from the part in comparison with to just copying the parts traditional products and trends.
The two conditions showed a level of contradiction between the application of these forms through the designer’s awareness, the users and their products. the search reached a conclusion, that the designer is awareness in considered a vital condition in the mode in order to complete the new product, with the intention of formulating a mode which is tied down with the will and choice and also, by the designer is awareness in enhancing it is meanings by the use of compound relations between previous works through the workability of it is organization based on the choice of values known to be related to certain products.

The local features in the Islamic architecture

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 234-255

Islamic architecture has spread in a wide geographical regions, covering many areas and cities with distinct civilizations, Most of these areas and cities imposed their local architectural features on the forms of Islamic buildings in these areas due to the flexibility that characterized the process of composition output of Islamic architecture represented in different functional patterns as mosques, palaces, schools, baths and markets.
This paper tries to study in-depth the existence of these local features and its assets in a range of distinct civilized areas covered by Islamic architecture. Reviewing previous studies concerning the research topic revealed the problem of the research which was the absence of enough theoretical knowledge about the details of local features in the Islamic architecture models, Thus, the research made it its goal to determine impact of these features on Islamic architecture and to disclose the process of employing it in the Islamic architecture buildings. To achieve this goal, the research adopted an approach with a number of steps: first, determining a theoretical framework with a collection of detailed vocabulary for studying the impact of local features, as the types of local features, the types of processing these features, and locations of the impact of them within the building, and the nature of the functions performed by these features, Then the application of this theoretical framework on mosques buildings in Islamic architecture in a group of areas with distinct civilizations and up to analyze the results and determine the deductions.

globlization and its effect on the building system

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 277-292

The Globalization has emerged and developed over several decides. This ideology which was set to constitutes the globe was not just to serve the world but to serve the entrusts of it’s believers for control and dominance. They’re for this ideology had to create anew world system, capable of constant reformation and changing. This new ideology made tools of technology, science, and economy as means have achieve it’s fundamental gals, no matter how these means have deferred and contradicted towards achieving the gals, they will seventhly serve the it’s main propose, which this comprehensive ideology seeks for. This contempory ideology points it’s efforts and tools the weak parts of this world, where the real meaning of system concept and it’s tools of implementing are unseen in the various fields specifically in architect as such.
The contemporary Iraqi, and Arabic cites has been for a long period of time suffering absence for a role of a comprehensive and integral urban system, cities suffer from enormous urban problems mainly, because of the basic urban system itself and it’s tools of implementation.
This research reveals the need and importance to rely upon an urban system, which bears the real meaning of its name that is on both academic and implementation levels. This should only be through comprehensive and not partial view, because partial problem dealing will only give partial and temporary results, with the use of such comprehensive system and implementational tools will consequently give out gains concerning identity, urban personalization.

THE STRATEGY OF URBAN DEVELOPMENT OF THE CITATEL CITIESComparative study between design strategy of the development of the citadel of Aleppo and the citadel of Erbil

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 309-326

The research deals with the impact of historical citadel on urban development for city canters and their importance in shaping the urban areas of the city, as an attempt to define the best possible strategies for urban development of historical cities and in particular (citadel cities), which represents a tourist attraction on both global and local levels.
Erbil city has been selected, as a case study for this research, since this fortress citadel having nowadays a comprehensive urban development, which creates an interactive effect for the urban fabric of the citadel and the urban fabric of the city of Erbil itself , significantly in shaping the city of Irbil through centuries and an additional importance for currently being a capital of Iraq's Kurdistan region and also an urban center which has a tourist attraction for the northern region in Iraq.
Through reviewing related studies the research problem defined as:(There is no clear perception of the strategic development for citadel of Erbil and its role in the growth of its urban center) And it has crystallized hypothesis (the urban development strategy of Erbil's citadel is affecting the integrity of the citadel with the surrounding and its historical characteristics).The research sets a vocabulary of a theoretical framework for creating a strategy of development for cities of citadel through the analysis of strategic development of the Citadel of Aleppo and the surrounding fabric by the view of many common aspects between it and Erbil's citadel, and also because the Citadel of Aleppo is considered as a global model embodies the many positive aspects in the development strategy adopted in it. By comparing these words with vocabulary development strategy adopted in Erbil's citadel, the research declares that the isolation of fortress city of Erbil, from its role as an urban node and constructive mode landmark and turn it into constructive mode (landmark)only led to the loss of integration as an urban node in the formation of the city.

The Effect of Morphological Changes in Urban Fabric on its Syntactical Properties-A Case Study in Mosul Old Suq-

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 348-362

Urban centers had been grew and expanded gradually with a little renewal of their parts . In the past, this process was very slowly due to limited development in needs .Most renewal works occurred as a response to destruction caused by natural disasters or wars . This was true until the industrial revolution which was accompanied with a dramatic changes in transportation systems and the necessity to erect wide streets in most historic centers .In many cases ,these works did not take in consideration the importance of spatial attributes of such centers .
Assuming that syntactical properties of any urban fabric – including the spatial organization - are related to its morphological attributes . This research tries to explore the impact of morphological changes in historic urban fabric ,which are represented mainly by the erection of streets , on its spatial organization . Such aim requires the determination of spatial organization attributes different periods depending on morphological changes in the fabric .
The old commercial center in Mosul – The Old Suq – is selected as a case study . Space syntax approach will be applied to determine the spatial organization attributes of this center in three sequential periods characterized by extreme morphological changes .
Key words: Urban fabric, Spatial organization, Mosul city, Morphological Changes

Digital ArchitectureStudying the formality characteristics of "digital architecture"

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 430-451

The digital revolution reflected on the architecture as it reflected on other scientific, living and social fields.
It's effects emerged clearly in the architectural form, Hence the architectural products did not stop at the design using the traditional methods and producing pictures using computer but exceeded to where the form produced as a result to the imagination design affected directly by the digital media. There is a clear lack of knowledge in this aspect on the academic and professional levels within our local modern digitalization society.
According the research problems was limited to "the lack of clear imagination of the forms characteristics for the digital architecture", and the research aimed to "specify the forms characteristics indications for the digital architecture".
To realize this goal some architectural studies were reviewed on two level, the first level being the architectural studies in relation to the analysis of the architectural forms to come out with general indications regarding the studies and form analysis, while the second level came out through reviewing these indicators in some studies that concerned the digital architecture and its forms resulting in main details, giving birth to the scope of understanding which were used later to test within projects defined by the architectural studies in owning the characteristics of digital forms and arriving to the final description to what the research concluded characteristics defined for the digital forms.

The Effect of Informatics In The form&function for urban scape Contemporary

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 466-480

The modern era have a dynamic and rapid change and transition which depend on technology, its applications and mechanisms, and then the current era is characterized by an informatics development which opened the doors for science and developments.. The era in which, the super word is going to be for that who can understand deeply the informatics development and who makes it locally settled, in order to make out of it an unique architecture form & function that can comply with the needs of society and reflects its intentions, then accomplishing a series of subjugating that suit the actual life of the modern person. According to architectural theories that’s discover about the type of informatics moving in form And function system Its do with informatics changes in form &function levels , for that the aim of research is to clear the changes in urban form &function levels because effective items as effect elements in urban escape contemporary The research problem (a lack in the nature of impacts of The Effect of informatics in the form&function for urban scape Contemporary). Informatics has presented new concepts that have changed the material world we live in, to create another parallel world in which fiction and science work together. The telecommunication equipment that has witnessed at the time unprecedented development, has contributed to finding new approaches to form and function. The method of research : defining the informatics & the relation between it and the form & function for urban escape contemporary ,clear the effective items and measure it finally We have The results discussed the recommendations’ and prospects of future research..

PILOT PROJECTS FOR TRADITIONAL AREAS IN BAHRAIN "Conservation & Urban Design Projects for Traditional Areas"

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 25-32

Bahrain has a rich heritage of built environment dating back to antiquity which left us many important of historical buildings and traditional city areas. However, the historical core areas of Bahrain’s two oldest towns, Muharraq and Manama, are now under threat. The concern of the government to seek innovative solutions for Bahrain’s cultural heritage resulted in adopting the project of “Capacity Building for Enhancement of Urban Governance: Urban Design Projects for Traditional Areas". A team comprised of an appointed project director and a number of international consultants representing various disciplines were assembled for the project with the assistance of the UN Development Program. A period of preliminary research, studies and design lasted from September 2005 till November 2006. Consultations cost of US$323,000 was met by the UN Development Program, and the over-head cost was provided by the Ministry of Municipalities Affairs, Bahrain.
The objectives of this project were to develop a comprehensive approach and implementation strategies that would lead to economic regeneration of the traditional historic areas of Manama and Muharraq and to re-integrate them into the daily life of their surrounding community for the benefit of all stakeholders, while conserving and preserving their character and sense of place.
The aim of this urban regeneration is to provide a living and vital environment for residents, businesses and visitors in which all aspects of everyday life can occur in safe and attractive surroundings instead of creating an urban museum. This environment will retain its traditional character and be the basis for future growth, benefiting all stakeholders and the Kingdom of Bahrain as a whole. Pilot Projects of a variety of types will be crucial to starting the revitalization of old urban areas in Manama and Muharraq.

The impact of the information development on the curricula development of architectural education

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 54-72

Architectural Education aims primarily to develop an efficient architecture for regularity in the successful profession practice that live continuous and rapid development; in a professional competition atmosphere that has moved from local and regional levels to global level. And the preparation of this architect, that educational institutions boasted of him as he boasts of it ; should be provided ongoing development to achieve a high level of university education that suits Iraq's ancient universities ..
The process of education in general include many of events such as(mind development, refine and build personal skills) and the passage of time the quality and quantity of information are getting and growing, which means the emergence of need to accommodate this development and increase during period of time and because the university education period is governed by a certain number of hours and weeks per semester , so a problem research highlights (how to control and access an efficient to accommodate the tremendous development in the information in the specific architecture education years study) and, therefore, the objective of this research is (to find successful solutions to control and accommodate the evolution in the quality and quantity of information and the consequent need to develop and change the architecture curriculum of the preliminary study and postgraduate).
Because the development of education and its curriculum includes significant challenges; make it more difficult than just to import or borrow ready regulations and platforms, in order to move away from tradition just for the shift away from the foundations of education; the paragraphs of this study addressed the development of architectural education through the study of the educational reality in Iraq. And through a theoretical study based on previous studies in this area as well as display platforms for some architectural schools experiences in the Arab world and Iraq, to reach proposals about the development of curricula for architectural education horizontally and vertically, and that can be achieved gradually over time and these proposals represent sound basis for building a list of developed architect education depends the increase principle of disciplines and specializations, as well as changing the current architecture curriculum depending to the terms and conditions that must provided as a mechanism to achieve the educational goals properly.

Place Identity of Residential Environment in Iraqi Contemporary Architectural Trends and its Impact on Academic Architectural Product

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 101-119

Iraqi contemporary architecture is characterized with rise of some trends associated with Iraqi pioneers who had various attitudes in expressing place identity. Two main trends which are swinging between the conservative one who adopts the domestic architectural heritage and the second trend who tends to follow international architectural tendencies entirely could be mentioned .
Today, in spite of these trends are more than fifty years old , there still some argument about this issue. The architectural works reflect more variation and ambiguity in expressing the contemporary local environment with no serious attempts to have a stable background for this case .
Within such situation , this paper tries to explain the role of academic institutions in dealing with this issue as these institutions are producers of new generations of architects who could be motivated to have a positive participation in local environment . A sample of third year students works concerning housing projects is selected for the study.
Key words : Architectural identity, Place identity, Iraqi architecture, Residential architecture, Architectural education .


The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 136-153

Landscape design is taught at Iraqi architectural colleges at the 4th stage in one
semester. Due to the increasing importance of this material and its environmental, ecological,
aesthetic and designing impacts on design and in order to reinforce its role in the architectural
learning in the undergraduate and postgraduate studies at the architectural departments, the
study problem focus on the deficiency of attention paid for this material and the qualification
of the graduated architect. Search has been made in both Arabic and foreign universities and
institutes to examine the teaching of this material as related to curriculum, teaching hours and
units in undergraduate studies to utilize such experiences.
The study aims at concluding certain recommendations on qualifying this material as
related to curriculum, hours and units that reinforce the undergraduate role in the field within
landscape design..

The Prognostical Value Of Special Aptitudes' Tests For Accepted Students To Study Architecture "Accepted Students In Architectural Department In The University Of Mosul As a Case Study"

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 171-199

Most institutions, around the world attend to do tests for persons competing to work, in order to achieve the correct professional choice.From these, are architectural departments in Iraq, which sometimes attempt to do unobligatory tests for students like studying architecture. Ivestigation about the importance of the prognostical value of these tests and their achievement in choosing and directing students for studying architecture emerges clearly especially, that students' acceptance now depends only on the final results of the secondary schools exams.
The problem of the paper had been represented as the absence of the objective vision of the prognostical value of the aptitudes' tests for accepted students in architectural departments, and its aim had been formed by determining this vision. The paper hypothesis pointed out, that there is a large prognostical value for these tests, and the different aptitudes affect equally the future architectural products of the students. In order to achieve the aim, and to test its hypothesis, the paper, had determined the special aptitudes concerning architecture throughout different architectural schools and references. These aptitudes presented as: the intelligence, creation and achievement( public and special) abilities, the design judgment and the artistic taste tests and the imagining and drawing abilities.Test had been designed consisting all these aptitudes for 41 students accepted in architectural department in Mosul university for the year 2009-2010 at the beginning of the year. The numerical value of all aptitudes had been determined as well as of each aptitude alone. Tow numerical values had been determined at the end of the year, reflecting student's architectural level, the first one,is the final result of the architectural design subject, and the second one is the final result of the assessment of the 1st year design teachers. Then comparisons had been determined between the results of the special aptitudes in order to get, the correlations between them. The paper had concluded that there is an objective prognostical value for the aptitudes' tests and the artistic ability , drawing skill and the intelligence are more important for students achievement in architecture.
keywords: architectural education, aptitudes' tests.

Rhythm in Traditional Facades a Lanes of the old Mosul City

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 256-276

Maintaining the characteristic and identity is considered of great importance to today's architecture because it as an extension of the architecture of the past and a bridge to the architecture of the future. Rhythm is an important component in dedicating the architectural characteristic and identity as the comprehension of the basic fundamentals that have contributed in creating and maintaining architecture, are inspired by the characteristic that occupies a prominent place in architecture. Thus, the study is an attempt to expound the essential terms and basic fundamentals that are a pivot of rhythm in faced design in the old Mosul city. These terms are represented by relations and systems of (unit and variety, gradation, and contrast).
The study concluded that the rhythm controlling the design of these facades is more or less based on the components stated and more obvious and that the (Mosulian) architecture in special, has attached importance to the rhythm aspect is designing external facades which is clearly noted proving that this architecture possesses integrated thoughts in designing his architecture either in his interior facades or his external facades. This is a good indication of intellectual maturity of the (Mosulian) architecture in producing integral architecture with peculiarity embodied in one of the aspects of architectural designs which is rhythm.

sculpturing and the modern architecture

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 293-308

Architecture is one of the constructive Arts, but it is distinguished from the rest of the arts (sculpture, painting) as a functional utility, has been argued to be defined as the mother of art because they contain other arts in its subjects, while the sculpture is an incorporating art based on the establishment of three-dimensional replicas.
There is direct relationship between architecture and sculpture through the incorporation of abstract forms of multiple spatial semantics with expressive manner.Sculptureal architecture has appeared at the late
Modern period through the generation of pure sculptural form with high technical characters and exaggerating style. Where architecture has carried a code system or signal symbolic significance. With an exaggerated and extreme style in the field of structure of construction and technological developments of the building as an to achieve joy and add visual enjoyment; to high light the research problem that is (Lake of clear vision of the nature of sculptural mechanism adopted in achieving contemporary sculptural architecture).So the objective of this research was determined (The definition of contemporary sculptural architecture and mechanism adopted to achieve it). According to that we will be able to obtain mechanisms of styles of both contemporary sculpture and architecture and consequently we will obtain common mechanisms to be adopted to produce a contemporary sculptural architecture

The Role of Multi Sensory Responsive Architecture in Forming Distinctness Imagesat Interior Spaces

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 363-383

The description of modern spaces is lacking in full range of sensory cues , which are not present in most modern spaces . They have also been neglected by designers, by not being consciously manipulated and by not allowing them to happen .There is currently an increased desire for sensory involvement for seeing, touching , smelling , hearing and feeling of kinesthetic – a desire for increased sensuality manifest in many fields , witch may permit architecture with multi sensory information, if only designers can take advantage . Research calls for the approach that embraces all human being senses and modes of understanding, and to treat sound, touch, and odor as the equals of sight. Sensory response, sentiment, and memory are critical design factors, the equals of structure and program which help in .

The research explores the nature of our responses to spatial spaces—from various sorts of shopping buildings, which needs to be a fulfilling the experience, and should provide unique images , different from another visited places .

The absence of a comprehensive theoretical framework for the phenomenon of multisensory responsive spaces in relation with distinctness images and exploring its implicit psychological aspects constitutes the main research problem. In view of the problem under investigation, the goal of the present research is to establish the main principles of the multi sensory space and mechanisms of the phenomenon and its consequences represented by making distinctive images in interior spaces.

The main hypothesis of the present research was formed as a result of the dialectic and reasonable interconnection between two main factors; complexity of individual parts of sensory data which is understood against the coherence of large paradigm, and that interior spaces which are temporal constructs, formed from complete perceptual image, where the clarity of the previous relationship that grants clear distinctness mental image in interior spaces.

Arriving at the aforementioned aim requires the building of the theoretical framework in the light of which the main research hypothesis is presented, and then the application of the framework to selected architectural shopping environments (Dubai Festival City, Wafi City, Ibn battuta Mall, Dubai Mall) in the U.A.E in order to test the validity of the hypothesis and eventually the extraction of the principles and mechanisms of the phenomenon.

The main research finding is that the visual and tactical responses have the role in constructing distinctive images, while smell and audio responses are less important.

The effect of using Alucoponed in achieving visual unity and attractionIn commercial building(An analytical study of commercial streets elevations)

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 411-429

The appearance of composite materials and there wide speared use for cladding commercial
buildings in the commercial streets context has an effect on visual unity & attractive for these
streets, form this research problem is that there is no clear and fine percept of the effect using
composite materials (Alucoponed) in cladding commercial buildings in the commercial streets
context on achieve visual unity. And the research hypothesis is (The use of composite materials
Alucoponed reduce visual unity& attractive in commercial streets general context and in the same
time give a visual attractive for single building). the research aims to find the effect of using
composite materials on visual unity concept on the general level (commercial street) and specific
buildings in the general context. And how it effects the visual attraction. The result for this
research is that using composite materials Alucoponed in the commercial streets, With the Varity
of local and non local materials. Those produce unfamiliar architectural language for persons that
effect inactively in achieving visual unity but in the same time effect positively in visual
attractive for single building. Which than contribute positively in economical income for the
owners of these buildings. And that what explain the wide speared in using composite materials
in urban context for commercial streets. The research submits some hypotheses solutions that
may support visual unity for urban scene depending on the analytical discretional approach in
analyzing some selecting examples in the city of Baghdad..

Developing a Conceptual Framework for Bridging the Gap Between (theory and practical) in Urban Design

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 452-465

There is confusion in professionals for the field of urban design results from the interactive nature of the
relationship between the (Idea) and presnting it in a communication language. The problem becomes more
complicated when shaping the (Concept) and the transition from the conceptual level to the next level applied.
So the main focus of current research on the statement of what the idea and concept, and the transition
mechanisms towards the application of the components of the process of urban design. It aims to search out the
mechanics and easier the process of communication between the parties of jurisdiction over the application level
and the level of education for the profession . .
Search as it tries to develop the basic ideas to move the concepts of urban design to the level applied. As the
research found that these concepts are broad and it needs to measurable indicators and to be aware of and
measurable indicators should contain realistic.
The search is based on the premise: (a real confusion between the idea and the concept (theoretically and
practically), including a direct impact on professional and academic groups within the field of urban design, in
terms of the ability to put ideas and presenting them).
Despite the fact that urban design is strongly related to applied science and experimental witch end with
objective product to bring jobs and human need. But the idea is part of very special in the field of urban design,
but it's the nature of the designer within the stages of preparation to do, but that there is no need to be followed
by the employer through the steps of the design process, the idea in any case be found behind the work, does not
matter However, the competent Fahim. If this view is important in practice, but what is happening already on the
level of education, indicates the presence of a missing link between teacher and student; represented in learning
to ask and formulate ideas and presnting, which weakens the possibility of create excellence urban product. .

The Color Decisions for Classrooms in the Primary Schools and its impact to form prefect educational environment for pupils

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 6, Issue 19, Pages 481-500

In our contemporary world, the child spends the most important period of (his/her) life in the school’s environment,which helps there growing up, and building there personality for there future life . However , namely in our country still suffers from poorness in the presence of clear , and pure colors in the interiors for many primary schools especially within the classroom structures . This is due to the lade of any database standards or requirements for designers based on research and lab. Work. Concerning the behavior of children in their classrooms. special colors can set our tool to run the education process in the primary schools as to improve the motivation of attention, focusing, temptation, and assimilation feelings in the children in that spaces. Therefore; this study aims at formulation a conclete and full reaction from the students in stimulating color sets for positive feeling in the space. Hence, this work attempts to motivate the educational motives for increased attention, focusing, and students’ assimilation, in the study of materials in the classroom affecting the color systems and their psychological properties as stimulants for positive results in that spaces. The research depends on the empirical analytical syllabus, to enrich the database analysis, and also to mark relationship between the educational process and the students’ feelings towards the use of color in their classrooms. For that the research is divided into five parts, the first part has an abstract about the colors and their different effects on children (pupils). While the second part covers the main forms of the study and the goals (syllabus) of the work. The third part, deals with colors and their stimulating forms on the educational activitives in the classrooms. The fourth part; involves the discussions on stimulating color forms in focusing and attention within the education process in the children in the classrooms, Recommendations, proposals are drawn from the general results for the future world are noted in the fifth part. .