ISSN: 1999-1738

Volume 7, Issue 22

Volume 7, Issue 22, Autumn 2011, Page 11-292


The Effect of Residential Re- Subdivision Analytic Study for Palestine Street from 2006-2010

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 7, Issue 22, Pages 11-26

This paper studies the concept of residential land re-subdivision, and the role of regulations,
instructions and standards in organizing this process, to provide residential plots which are suitable
in their dimensions and areas to the residence.
Residential re-subdivision affected by many factors such as number of new households, their
economic situation, and the plot areas; which enable the families to adopt this solution
The residential land re-subdivision is a good solution to reduce shortage in housing stock, and
minimizing the pressure on the residential demand , but at the same time it is a reason for increasing the
accommodation and population densities and the floor area ratio ( F.A.R) ,as well as increasing the
demand on the social and technical infrastructure .
The aim of this papers is to build a theoretical framework to the residential land re-subdivision,
determined the factors that affect on it, and its effects on the residential area.
The research problem is that, "residential re-subdivision effects on planning standards of the plots and
residential areas ", while the research hypothesis is that," the residential re- subdivision produced new
planning standards which have negative effects on the plots in residential areas”.
The research finding was that the residential re-subdivision was a main reason for reducing the
housing shortage, getting the new household a private residential space, at the same time; it was the
reason for raising the population, accommodation densities, and the floor area ratio.
Also the paper found that the residential re-subdivision has been according to the household need,
and according to the space left from the residential plot, without adherence to planning and standards
related to residential land subdivision ,this was the reason for the appearance of plots of different areas
and dimensions ,and some times of very small areas .يتناول البحث ظ اهرة اعادة الاف ا ر ا زلسكني ويوضح مفهومها لغوياً واصطلاحياً، فضلاً عن دور القوانين و التعليمات
والمعايير في تنظيم هذه العملية وتوفير قطع سكنية ملائمة بمساحتها وابعادها بما يتفق مع حاجة الساكنين .
تتأثر عملية اعادة الأف ا رز السكني بشكل رئيسي باعداد الأسر الجديدة المتكونة او المنشطرة وتغيير الحالة الأقتصادية
للأسرومساحة القطعة السكنية وعوامل اخرى تساعد في تبني هذه الظاهرة من قبل الأسرة.
تعد عملية اعادة الأف ا ر ا زلسكني ظ اهرة جيدة في سد العجز في الرصيد السكني ورفع الضغط على الطلب السكني
،الا انها في ذات الوقت تؤدي الى رفع الكثافات الأسكانية والسكانية والبنائية في الموقع السكني ،فضلا عن زيادة الضغط
على خدمات البنى التحتية الأجتماعية والفنية.
اشارت الأدبيات السابقة الى وجود فجوة معرفية في د ا رسة هذه الظ اهرة وبهذا فأن هدف البحث هو سد هذه الفجوة
المعرفية . كما يهدف البحث الى وضع اطار نظ ري لهذه الظ اهرة يتحدد من خلاله العوامل الم ؤثرة على اعادة الأف ا رز
السكني وتأثيره في الوقت ذاته على المنطقة السكنية .تشير مشكلة البحث الى ان اعادة الاف ا رز السكني يؤثر على
المعايير التخطيطية للقطع والا ا رضي السكنية . ويفترض البحث ان اعادة الاف ا رز السكني تؤثر بشكل سلبي على المعايير
التخطيطية للقطع والمناطق السكنية وتولد قطعا سكنية غير قياسية .
توصل البحث الى ان اعادة الأف ا رز السكني كان احد الأسباب المهمة التي ساعدت في سد العجز بالرصيد السكني
وحصول الأسر الجديدة المتكونة على فضاء سكني خاص بها, الا ان هذه الظ اهرة كانت في الوقت ذاته سببا في رفع
الكثافات السكانية والاسكانية والبنائية في المنطقة السكنية. كما توصل البحث الى ان هذه الأف ا ر ا زت السكنية جاءت وفقا
لحاجة الأسرة والفضاء المتبقي من القطعة السكنية دون م ا رعاة المعايير التخطيطية الخاصة بتقسيم القطع والأ ا رضي
السكنية مما ادى الى ظهور مساحات وابعاد غير قياسية واحيانا صغيرة جدا في المنطقة السكنية جاءت كأسهم في سند
الملكية بسبب غياب الرقابة البلدية.

THE AESTHETIC IMPACT FOR THE TECHNIQUES PRESENTATION FOR INTERIOR ARCHITECTURE

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 7, Issue 22, Pages 45-62

Man searches for a tool to reflect his thoughts and simulate what is around him of features, and through the various and different drawing techniques he can now portray what is around him and demonstrate it with different means as an integral whole. Where using the techniques requires using the experience and skill by drawing and architectural performance. The research problem was determined by the scientific need to know the nature of the aesthetical effect for the presentation techniques in internal architecture, where the research tries to disclose the nature of the aesthetical effect for the presentation techniques through the types of feeling in both the assumptive and realistic spaces, by assuming the effect of the internal architecture by the presentation techniques. And in order to treat the research problem and verify the aims of the research and its hypothesis, an assumptive model was built which represents the items of the presentation techniques, aesthetical effect and internal architecture.
The semi-experimental research depended on the phenomenalistic tendency in the remark from designed by the researcher as a means for a test, and a research sample was selected which included four internal spaces within two assumptive spaces and two virtual spaces, and )22 persons as a responding sample, where the sample was divided according to the age category into two parts. Five techniques were applied for each internal space, and the percentage and Excel program for graphs were used in order to reach the best results in harmony with the particularity of the research aims and to verify its adopted assumptions. The results of analyzing the aesthetical effect for the presentation techniques proved many levels, the first level included the relation of the aesthetical effect to the gender where the results showed the strong effectiveness of the water colors techniques + pastel with the males, and the strong effectiveness of the water colors with the females, as for the age category, the results showed the strong effectiveness of the water colors + pastel with the age group (35-50) years and the strong effectiveness of the water colors with the age group (22-35). As for the level of spaces, the results showed the strong effectiveness of the virtual space. The final conclusions showed the strong effectiveness of water colors technique and the weak effectiveness of the ink pen techniques, and the strong effectiveness of the feeling mode effective and the average effectiveness of the mode virtual and weak effectiveness of the mode imaginary, in addition to the strong effectiveness of the virtual space and weak effectiveness of the assumptive space..

Visual Chaos of the Formal Order of the University Buildings Case Study – University of Technology

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 7, Issue 22, Pages 85-104

This Paper Studies Visual Chaos phenomenon in the University of Technology, after the
development and rehabilitation of its Buildings, Which was the reason for the absence of the
formal order Unity of its Buildings. So the aim of this paper is to built a base Knowledge to
visual chaos phenomenon, Order and Formal Order. The research hypothesis was “there is a
visual chaos in the formal order of the elevations and the master plan of the University
of Technology”. The research defines the visual chaos as the absence of order in the formal
pattern. The research has built a theoretical framework defined the visual chaos, and project
it, on a selected buildings that have been rehabilitated and a new project of the University of
Technology. The main research findings was the absence of identity of the final product
elevations, and the master plan of the University, which was the reason for the visual chaos of
the formal order. The absence of planning and good design for the master plan and elevations
was the reason for ignoring the unity in the form and context. So the paper insist on finding a
relation between old and new through investing elements and formal properties which create
legible context and unity in the order of the University.يتناول البحث موضوع الفوضى البصرية في الجامعة التكنولوجية بعد عممية التط وير والتأهيل لمبانيها والتي ادت
بدورها الى عدم وجود نظام شكمي موحد لابنية الجامعة وهو مايمثل مشكمة البحث لذا هدف البحث الى بناء قاعدة
معرفية لكل من ظاهرة الفوضى البصرية والنظام والنظام الشكمي، يفترض البحث وجود تشويش وفوضى بصرية في
تصميم النظام الشكمي لواجهات والمخطط الاساس لمجامعة التكنولوجية. عرف البحث الفوضى البصرية بأنها غياب
النظام الناتج من اللانسقية في النمط الشكمي لذلك النظام. توصل البحث الى اطار نظري لمفردات الفوضى البصرية
وتم تطبيق هذا الاطار عمى مشاريع منتخبة في الجامعة تم تأهيمها ضمن عممية التطوير ومشاريع انشئت حديثاً
وكانت اهم النتائج التي توصل لها البحث هو غياب الهوية في شكل النتاج النهائي لمواجهات ولممخطط الاساس
والذي ادى بدوره الى الفوضى البصرية في النطام الشكمي. كان لغياب التخطيط المسبق والتصميم المدروس لممخطط
الاساس والواجهات لابنية الجامعة الدور في فقدان الجامعة لوحدة التكوين الشكمي والسياق المشترك بين الابنية . لذا
أكد البحث عمى ايجاد العلاقة بين الشكل القديم والحديث من خلال استثمار عناصر مشتركة واعتماد خصائص
شكمية تخمق سياق واضح ونظام تصميمي موحد لمجامعة .

The Impact of Technology on the patterns of the Arab-Islamic city

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 7, Issue 22, Pages 115-130

The traditional Arab-Islamic city represented a reflection of the desires of the Arab-Muslim community and the Arab- Islamic character, and a clear expression of the religious and the cultural transformations of their different societies, and at the same time showed the physical structure formed by the characteristics of environmental and social principles and ideological, religious and spiritual values. The looking at the present Arab cities raise many fundamental and pressing questions regarding the continuity of the Arab- Islamic city in the present Arab societies. Is there still a real phenomenon of the "Arab-Islamic city", as active as the way it existed in the past, does this phenomenon have new patterns that reflect the Arab-Muslim community, or it was transformed by the challenges to a city that does not bear any pattern that reflect the patterns of the Arab-Islamic city?.That leads to the research problem (the impact of technological changes the transformation of the traditional Arab-Islamic city form, and modern and digital modern city form).The research contains an extensive study of the Arab-Islamic city, the modern Arab city and the digital modern Arab city and its patterns and the characteristics of its physical structure. Hence, three main indicators (indicator for land use, the physical fabric of the physical elements which includes the (mosque) indicator , markets, residential district and the streets net). Two examples were selected according to certain criteria that were adopted by the researcher, The first was Arab city, and Rusafa, the old city center of Baghdad, for implementing of the process of the practical study, finally to reach the results and the final conclusions and to identify the current patterns of the Arab city and the effects of the industrial revolution of the communications and information revolution on the Arab city.
The research contains recommendations for the urban designers; the most important is that the contemporary Arab city needs to have the characteristics that were aroused from the aspirations and requirements of the society and urban heritage within the situation and the stage. The research opens future perspectives for other researches to study the usage of the means of the industrial revolution and information technology and the ways of adapting these techniques in order to serve the Arab-Islamic city..

Design of Horizontal Shading Devices for Baghdad city's Buildings

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 7, Issue 22, Pages 157-171

The use of sun control and shading devices is an important aspect of many energy-efficient
building design strategies, where the shading of the building is the first step in the passive
cooling systems in buildings. So the starting point of cooling systems is to reduce the solar
heat gain by prevent solar radiation from entering the building in the hot period in the same
time allow the daylight and benefit from achieving passive heating in cold period.
This research interested with design of horizontal shading devices for buildings in Baghdad
city. The research problem identified as the need to study the factors influence in deign
horizontal shading devices and determining their dimensions. The research aimed to study the
horizontal shading device in simple method because this device is the most effective and most
commonly used among other types of shading devices.
The research analyses the local affecting variables comprising the outside air temperature and
intensity of solar radiation during the warm and cold months in Baghdad city.
The study prepared for architectural designer the suitable values of extending the shading
devices according to orientation, as well as the predictability of the design efficiency of all
size of shading devices placed over the windows.
The method of this research applied of design horizontal sun breakers with windows in
different orientation, which showed the space of flexibility and possibilities in the design of
shading devices.
The research reach a number of conclusions presented as guideline to assist the designers in
making decisions about the use of horizontal shading devices in different design cases.يعتبر تظليل المبنى الخطوة الاولى ضمن الانظمة الطبيعية لتبريد المبنى. فنقطة البداية لأنظمة تبريد المبنى هي تقليل
الكسب الح ا رري الشمسي بمنع الاشعة الشمسية من الدخول الى المبنى في المواسم الح ارة فضلاً عن امكانياتها لإدخال
الضوء الطبيعي والاستفادة منها في تحقيق التدفئة الذاتية للمبنى في المواسم الباردة.
اهتم هذا البحث بجانب تصميم المانعة الشمسية الافقية لمباني مدينة بغداد. وتم تحديد المشكلة البحثية ب: الحاجة لد ا رسة
العوامل الم ؤثرة في تصميم وتحديد الابعاد الملاءمة للمانعات بما ينسجم مع الحالات المختلفة للمباني في مدينة بغداد،
هدف البحث الى د ا رسة المانعات الافقية الخارجية والعوامل الم ؤثرة في تصميمها كونها المانعات الاكثر فعالية والاكثر
استخداماً من بين بقية الانواع من المانعات.
تمّ تحليل المتغي ا رت المؤثرة في تصميم المانعات الشمسية وهي درجة ح ا ررة الهواء الخارجي وشدة الاشعاع الشمسي خلال
الاشهر الحارة والباردة لمدينة بغداد. جهز البحث للمصمم المعماري القيم الملاءمة لإمتداد المانعات الشمسية وفقاً
للتوجيهات المختلفة، علاوة على امكانية التنبؤ بقياس كفاءة جميع احجام المانعات الشمسية الافقية التي توضع فوق
الشبابيك. طبقت الطريقة الخاصة بالبحث على تصميم مانعات شمس لشبابيك ذات توجيهات مختلفة أظهرت خلالها
مجالات المرونة والامكانيات المتاحة في تصميم المانعة الشمسية الافقية.
توصل البحث الى عدد من الاستنتاجات طرحت بهيئة خطوط استرشادية للمصمم تساعده في اتخاذ ق ا ر ا رت حول استخدام
المانعات الشمسية في الحالات التصميمية المختلفة.

Color Harmony in Urban Environment

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 7, Issue 22, Pages 192-215

Many studies have addressed the problem of visual distortion a and disharmony in urban
facades in terms of styles , formations , compositions and materials ... Etc., which reflected
negatively on the urban form and aesthetic character of the city, and as a result of imposing
of colors and clear dissonant in its design harmony .
This research deals with the concept of harmony in architecture in general and urban design in
particular, draw the most important formulas to achieve Color harmony in the urban facades,
the research problem states that "there is no clear perception of the formulas to achieve
color harmony in urban facade ", The research hypothesis in " color harmony may be
achieved in urban facade through selected harmony formulas." Research hypothesis was
tested in an urban housing project adopted, the color as a key element in the design of its
facades, after some necessary adjustments to the application in the program (Adobe
Photoshop CS5), research has concluded the following:
1 - the values of harmony achieved in different form according to the level of Color Harmony
formula approved in the design, which indicates the integration between the relations of
harmony and the formula of the Color Harmony.
2 – the change of the color harmony formula effects the value of formal harmony..

HUMANIZATION OF ARABIC ISLAMIC ARCHITECTURE Architecture between needs requirement & ideal theorization

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 7, Issue 22, Pages 239-254

Architecture is the content of human events, it is the most important products through history
with all its structure of the formal elements, relations between them and the regulations governing the
organization of space and movement patterns and formations that form the lives of their inhabitants to
achieve the highest performance of the material without displacing the local building techniques and
modern engineering into account the rules and the investment component of the site in order to find
the structure of architectural humanism the surrounding elements of the natural environment to
achieve the requirements basic, so the architecture is the spatial - temporal extension to accommodate
the integrated human concept and has an amount of the relative stability of its components being
subject to the values, conventions and beliefs.
The environment of contemporary architecture Suffered from a clear separation between
human values system and product architecture, the research's aim, which is :" study the requirements
of the basic need which is supposed to be available in the to access the humanization architecture
inspired by the Arab-Islamic architectural heritage, to achieve the integrated architectural environment
and maintain an identity and privacy", Accordingly, the research's problem was reflected in : "The
environment of contemporary architecture losses the humanity, identity and their inability to achieve
integration between the product architecture and the requirements of the need" . So the research shed
light on the basic requirements and privacy associated with the humanize the architectural product
which is clearly reflected in the characteristics of the Arab-Islamic architecture,the way to the final
conclusions and recommendations .تعد العمارة محتوى فعاليات الإنسان، ومن أهم مصنعاته عبر التاريخ بكل ما تتضمنه بنيتها من العناصر الشكلية والعلاقات
التي تربط بينها والقواعد التنظيمية التي تحكمها في التنظيم الفضائي وانماط الحركة والتكوينات الشكلية التي تجسد حياة ساكنيها
وم ا رعاة القواعد الهندسية واستثمار عناصر الموقع بهدف ايجاد بنية معمارية تؤنسن ما حولها من عناصر البيئة الطبيعية لتحقيق
المتطلبات الأساسية، فالعمارة إمتداد مكاني-زماني يستوعب البعد الانساني المتكامل ويمتلك ق د ا ر من الثبات النسبي لمكوناته المادية
كونها خاضعة للقيم والأع ا رف والمعتقدات .
تعاني البيئة المعمارية المعاصرة من الفصل الواضح بين منظومة القيم الإنسانية والنتاج المعماري، يهدف البحث الى :"
د ا رسة متطلبات الحاجة الاساسية التي يُفترض توفرها في العمارة للوصول الى عم ارة انسانية تستلهم الموروث المعماري العربي
الإسلامي، لتحقيق بيئة معمارية متكاملة ومحافظة على الهوية والخصوصية"، وتبعا لذلك فقد تجسدت مشكلة البحث في :" فقدان
البيئة المعمارية المعاصرة إنسانيتها وهويتها وعجزها عن تحقيق التكامل بين النتاج المعماري ومتطلبات الحاجة "، وبذلك سلط البحث
الضوء على المتطلبات الاساسية والخصوصية المرتبطة بإنسنة النتاج المعماري التي تتجلى بوضوح في خصائص العمارة العربية
الاسلامية ، والتي تؤكد على دور المعماري في أنسنة عناصر الطبيعية لتلبية الحاجات الاساسية بعيداً عن مثالية التنظير، وصولاً الى
الاستنتاجات النهائية والتوصيات .

Urban Form Types and Some Related Social Problems of Multistorey Housing in Britain and the Gulf

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 7, Issue 22, Pages 278-292

The urban expansion of the Gulf cities included many multi-storey housing
projects of urban form types similar to those built in Britain during the post
Second Wold War period of reconstruction. According to the literature, these
types of urban form are associated with a number of social problems in relation
to the health of some residents, anti-social behaviour of some youngsters, and
some types of crime. The aim of this research is to identify the types of urban
form in the context of the British built environment and to conduct a pilot study
to investigate the presence of social problems in Gulf housing projects which
encompass urban forms similar to those built in Britain during the post Second
Wold War period. The conclusion is that some social problems can be traced in
some of the projects inspected in the study. The study suggest further in depth
research to determine the extent of such social problems and suggest design
some guidance for new projects in order to avoid such problems.

Subjective and objective in architectural modernity and post modernity

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 7, Issue 22, Pages 27-44

The architecture is the highest knowledge field and most reactive in human society where,
human lives in this article includes subjective and objective concepts and the relationship between them.
Also, this shows the relation between these two concepts and the science of society, in order to show the
background knowledge between those two concepts and reflection on architectural idea. This article
concentrates to clear this dualism in general architecture and in architectural modernity and post modernity
in special aim, due to their relations. Each one completes the other concept in time also.

Concepts in Architecture Between Theory and Practice

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 7, Issue 22, Pages 63-83

Architecture on both sides, theoretical and practical, deals with many concepts,
according to the intellectual visions and different trends of architecture , in general, and of
architectural designer, in particular. To highlight the importance of studying the concept in
the architecture in terms of theoretical and practical aspects.
The research problem came to point out” the lack of clear sight of the nature and
levels of concepts that architecture deals with on both sides, theoretical and practical” Thus,
the main goal of this research is to” make a clear understanding of concepts in architecture,
which identifies the nature and levels of concepts in architecture theoretically and
practically”. The research methodology included the following steps: First, identifying a
theoretical framework to the concepts in architecture in general, through the definition of the
linguistic and conventional, and address of the specialist architectural studies, to include this
framework, the four items the president are: manifestations of the concept and the level and
characteristics as well as a single detection methods for concepts ,and then build the research
hypothesis and testing, as I suppose Search contrast manifestations and the levels and
characteristics of the concepts that deal with architecture in terms of its sides the theoretical
and applied, to be then choose two levels of the samples, and included the first level (10)
architectural research dealt with one concept in architecture and ensure the second level (10 )
contemporary architectural projects local and international, to test that hypothesis through
comparative analysis, down to analyze the results and determine the conclusions.
The research found the diversity of manifestation and the levels and characteristics of
the concepts that architecture deals with in both sides theoretical (of architectural research)
and practical (of architectural practice), with variation in the concentration of each sides of
the manifestations and the levels and specific characteristics of these concepts. science the
studies and researches provide a clear conceptual form that may give an idea to understand a
specific concept and its relation to the other concepts, this studies may provides indications to
identify concepts in architectural practice, and sometimes provides measurements to these
concepts, while architectural practice utilizes concepts in different levels, it may adopt some
subsidiary concept without the other in achieving the main concept, with achieve the overall
objective of the project, even it was functional or communication between the designer as
sender and receiver.تتعامل العمارة بجانبیها النظري والتطبیقي مع العدید من المفاهیم، وعلى وفق كل من الرؤى الفكریة والتوجهات
المختلفة للعمارة، بصورة عامة، وللمصمم المعماري، بصورة خاصة. لتبرز اهمیة د ا رسة المفهوم في العمارة من حیث
الجوانب النظریة والتطبیقیة.
جاءت مشكلة البحث لتنص على "عدم وجود تصور واضح حول طبیعة ومستویات المفاهیم التي تتعامل معها العمارة
على صعید جانبیها النظري والتطبیقي"، وجاء هدف البحث "بطرح التصور الاكثر وضوحا حول المفهوم في العمارة وبما
یمكن من تحدید طبیعة ومستویات المفاهیم على صعید الجوانب النظریة والتطبیقیة للعمارة"، قام البحث باج ا رء عدة
خطوات منهجیة تمثلت اولها ببناء اطا ا ر نظریا للمفهوم في العمارة، بصورة عامة، من خلال التعا ریف اللغویة
والاصطلاحیة والتطرق للد ا رسات المعماریة المتخصصة، لیشتمل ذلك الاطار على اربعة مفردات رئیسة هي: مظاهر
المفهوم ومستویاته وخصائصه فضلا عن مفردة اسالیب الكشف عن المفاهیم، ومن ثم بناء فرضیة البحث واختبارها، اذ
افترض البحث تباین مظاهر ومستویات وخصائص المفاهیم التي تتعامل معها العمارة على صعید جانبیها النظري
والتطبیقي، لیتم بعدها اختیار مستویین من العینات، حیث تضمن المستوى الاول ( 10 ) بحوث معماریة تناولت احد
المفاهیم في العمارة وتضمن المستوى الثاني ( 10 ) مشاریع معماریة معاصرة عالمیة ومحلیة، لاختبار تلك الفرضیة عبر
تحلیل مقارن لها، وصولا الى تحلیل النتائج وتحدید الاستنتاجات.
توصل البحث إلى تنوع مظاهر ومستویات وخصائص المفاهیم التي تتعامل معها العمارة بجانبیها النظري (المتمثل
بالبحوث المعماریة) والتطبیقي (المتمثل بالممارسات المعماریة)، مع تباین في تركیز كل جانب على مظاهر ومستویات
وخصائص محددة لتلك المفاهیم، اذ توفر البحوث والد ا رسات صیاغة مفاهیمیة واضحة ومحددة قد تعطي تصوا ر لمفهوم
معین وارتباطاته بالمفاهیم الاخرى، وقد توفر هذه الد ا رسات مؤش ا رت للتعرف على المفاهیم في الواقع المعماري، واحیانا
تصل الى توفیر مقاییس لتلك المفاهیم، في حین تستثمر الممارسة المعماریة المفاهیم بمستویات مختلفة، فقد تعتمد بعض
المفاهیم الفرعیة دون غیرها في تحقیق المفهوم الرئیسي، وبما یحقق الهدف العام من المشروع سواء كان الهدف وظیفي او
هدف تحقیق الاتصال مابین المصمم كمرسل والمتلقي.

the Effect of sun breakers characteristics on wind noise generated by them

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 7, Issue 22, Pages 105-114

In hot regions like Iraq, where solar energy is very high, sun breaks are preferred to be
implemented in design of the buildings as apart of the facade. Some types of sun breakers cause
whistling noise or other types of noise which annoy occupants of the building especially if the
building is residential.
as it has been found, numbers of sun breakers may act similar in preventing sun ray
penetration, therefore classified these shapes according to it's effects on causing noise may help
designers in choosing the shapes matching there esthetic needs with less noise generating.
Thus sun breakers with different shapes has been studied in this research using cfd
program to predict the noise which caused by each type of sun breakers using forced wind on
them in different directions.The results showed that's possible to provide designers with clear
picture on the behavior of sun breakers on noise generating in order to prevent the annoy ones.في المناطق الح ارة كالع ا رق والتي تكون فيها الطاقة الشمسية عالية، يفضل وضع برو ا زت او تكس ا رت في
الواجهة كمانعات شمس او ان تحمل الواجهة مانعات شمس صريحة، ان هذه البرو ا زت والمانعات الصريحة تسبب
في بعض الحالات عند زيادة سرعة الريح على الواجهة أصواتا من صفير أو غي ره مما يزعج شاغلي المبنى خاصة
اذا كان المبنى سكنيا وكانت هذه الفضاءات المزودة بمانعات الشمس غرف نوم، وبأعتبار أن عددا كبي ا ر من الاشكال
الهندسية لمانعات الشمس يمكن أن تؤدي نفس الكفاءة في منع اشعة الشمس رغم اختلاف أشكالها فانه من المفيد
للممارسة المعمارية تقديم صورة عن اثر اختلاف ألاشكال في تكوينها للأصوات المزعجة لتساعد المصمم على تجنب
ماقد يحدث بعد انتهاء التصميم من أصوات قد تؤثر في الشاغلين أولتنبيه المصمم لاتخاذ المعالجات المناسبة في
حال رغبة المصمم أعتماد أشكالاً مسببة للضوضاء. ولاجل توفير معلومات قابلة للافادة من قبل المعماريين فقد تم
د ا رسة انواع المانعات وأختبارها على برنامج خاص بحركة الهواء للتنبؤ بالاصوات التي يسببها كل ن وع اذا كانت
الريح موازية له او مائلة عنه او عمودية عليه، وقد أظهرت النتائج انه من الممكن اعطاء المصمم تصو ا رت واضحة
عن كل ن وع على وفق الاتجاه وعلى وفق أرتفاع البناية ا رجين ان يكون ماقدمناه من عمل يغني المكتبة المعمارية
ومن الله التوفيق .

The Role of Technology in Urban Fragmentation Analytical Study for the Role of Information and Communication Technologies in Urban Fragmentation

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 7, Issue 22, Pages 131-156

The research deals with one of the most important issues that faces cities during their growth, the
“Urban Fragmentation”, which occurs to the city and its parts during its various stages of growth
due to many different reasons , technology is one of the most important of those reasons.
The research has defined the urban fragmentation as: The state of dismantling, losing
coherence, and heterogeneity in urban form and structure, that is linked to the process of
city growth, the state of urban fragmentation occurs on different levels such as the formal,
spatial, functional and social levels, due to technological developments and functional and
economical needs, in addition to the changes in the cultural values and political
circumstances.
The research problem was determined as: the lack of sufficient knowledge about the role of
the information and communication technologies in the fragmentation of cities. The
research goal identified as : exploring the phenomenon of urban fragmentation and the most
important indicators at the level of form and structure, and define the role of information
and communication technology in the fragmentation and re-shaping and structuring the
cities.
Research has come to build a comprehensive overall vocabulary and indicators to designate the
phenomenon of urban fragmentation at formal and spatial , functional and social levels, the main
vocabulary of shape and structure was specified for the case study and its secondary vocabulary
of the urban fabric, land use and spatial organization of the road grid. By testing the research
hypothesis at the Rasafah-Baghdad and Jersey , due to different phases of technological
development, the two cities passed through, and the phenomenon of fragmentation as a result of
technological progress and development at various stages, at the formal and structural level, the
research has come to the most important conclusions of the following: -
1. The level of fragmentation is varying due the technology in cities form and structure over
time, as it reached the peak during the Industrial Revolution and began to erode with the
development of information and communication technologies at the level of the structure
more than the formal level.
2. The new centralities in contemporary cities caused by the techniques of communication and
information are centralities of re- link of the land uses, which was fragmented by the
industrial revolution, at the same time it represents a new level of fragmentation at another
level of formal and social development of the city.یتناول البحث احد أهم المشاكل التي تتعرض إلیها المدن خلال عملیة النمو المستمر وهي حالة التشظي الحضري
التي تصیب المدینة وأجزائها في مراحل نموها المختلفة لعدة أسباب أهمها التطور والتقدم ،(Urban Fragmentation)
التكنولوجي.
توصل البحث من خلال الدراسات إلى تعریف التشظي الحضري بكونه "حالة التفكك وفقدان التماسك وعدم التجانس في
الشكل والهیكل الحضري المرتبطة بنمو المدینة، تحدث حالة التشظي الحضري على مستویات عدة كالمستوى الشكلي
والفضائي والوظیفي والاجتماعي والثقافي، بسبب التقدم التكنولوجي والمتطلبات الاقتصادیة والوظیفیة والتغی ا رت في القیم
الثقافیة والظروف السیاسیة.
حددت مشكلة البحث : "عدم وجود معرفة كافیة بدور تقنیات الاتصالات والمعلومات في تشظي المدن"، وعلیه حدد هدف
البحث : باستكشاف ظاهرة التشظي الحضري واهم مؤش ا رتها على مستوى شكل وهیكل المدینة وتحدید دور تقنیات
تكنولوجیا المعلومات والاتصالات في تشظي وا عٕادة تشكیل وهیكلة المدن.
توصل البحث إلى بناء شامل لمجمل المفردات والمؤشرات التي تعین ظاهرة التشظي الحضري على المستویات الشكلیة
والفضائیة والوظیفیة والاجتماعیة، ت وم إفراز المفردات الرئیسة المتمثلة بمفردة الشكل والهیكل للدراسة العملیة ومفرداتها الثانویة
المتمثلة بالنسیج واستعمالات الأرض والتنظیم الفضائي لشبكة الشوارع.
كونهما تعرضتا لظاهرة ،(Jersey) من خلال اختبار فرضیة البحث في مركز الرصافة لمدینة بغداد، وفي مدینة جرسي
التشظي نتیجة التطور ا ولتقدم التكنولوجي بمراحله المختلفة على المستوى الشكلي والهیكلي توصل البحث إلى أهم الاستنتاجات
الآتیة:-
1. تباین مستوى التشظي بفعل التكنولوجیا في شكل وهیكل المدن عبر الزمن إذ بلغ أقصاه في فترة الثورة الصناعیة وبدأ
بالانحسار مع تطور تقنیات الاتصالات والمعلومات على مستوى هیكل المدینة أكثر مما هو علیه في المستوى الشكلي
للمدینة.
في المدن المعاصرة الناتجة بفعل تقنیات الاتصالات والمعلومات هي مركزیات (centralities) 2. إن المركزیات الجدیدة
إعادة ارتباط لاستعمالات ارض المتشظیة بفعل فترة الثورة الصناعیة، وهي في نفس الوقت تمثل تشظي جدید على مستوى
آخر یتمثل بالمستوى الشكلي والاجتماعي للمدینة.

Representation in activation the interlocution of interior spaces language

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 7, Issue 22, Pages 172-191

The subject of representation in the Interior Design & Interior Architecture occupied an important place
& a wide range of interesting by theorists, critics & practitioners of the jurisdiction of interior design, and
came this interest in narrative theory & practical both in terms of the fact that the products of interior design
are language & communication system with the receiver, This has pour practitioners jurisdiction interest to
generate meanings intended and delivered through a formula of representation, while a theorists & critics made
a lot of explanations in an attempt to discover the meaning of the work or approach, achieving basis formula of
representation for dialogic language through the formation of form in the interior space.
In order to highlight the required framework, research made use of literary and architectural studies to
come out with a detailed theoretical framework for the Representation in interior design. This included many
topics : What is meant by, Representation, what is the shift from formal references, How to deal with
references , the new generated meanings, interlocution of language in design.
The realization of this framework represented the first stage of the method followed in this study. As for
the requirements of the second stage (the application of the theoretical framework), which were delimited by
the choice of two groups of projects representing the most prominent architects of the Post-Modernism
approaches & Deconstruction school, as also requests the application for the research procedure to identify
indicators of the theoretical framework of controlled application, research objectives, method of collecting
information, measurement of variables and method of measurements on projects in the practical study &
analyzed there results.
A discussion of the conclusions of this study within many perspectives was held; the first of which
emphasized the importance of the theoretical framework set forth concerning the concept of the Representation
as an interlocution of language through the well-established theoretical knowledge presented in the Post-
Modernism approaches & Deconstruction school.احتل موضوع التمثيل في التصميم الداخلي حي ا زً مهماً و واسعاً من اهتمام منظ ري و مصممي التصميم الداخلي والعمارة
الداخلية، و جاء هذا الاهتمام ضمن طروحاتهم النظرية و العملية من منطلق كون نتاجات التصميم الداخلي لغة و نظام اتصال مع
المتلقي، لهذا فقد صب ممارسو الاختصاص اهتمامهم على توليد المعاني المقصودة و إيصالها من خلال صيغة التمثيل، بينما
أطلق المنظرون و النقاد الكثير من التفسي ا رت في محاولة لاكتشاف معاني العمل أو الاقت ا رب منها، محققين في هذا تأسيسا لصيغة
التمثيل لتحقيق اللغة الحوارية من خلال التكوينات الشكلية في الفضاء الداخلي. و ذلك ما دفع البحث إلى استثمار كلتي التوجهات
الأدبية و التصميمية لبلورة إطار نظ ري تفصيلي للتمثيل في التصميم الداخلي الذي تضمن عدة مفردات منها؛ ماهية التمثيل، و
ماهية التحول الشكلي من الم ا رجع، و التعامل معها، و آلية اشتغال صيغة التمثيل باتجاه صياغة اللغة الحوارية الفاعلة في تصميم
الفضاءات الداخلية. و قد شكلت بلورة هذا الإطار إنج ا ا زً للمرحلة الأولى لمنهج البحث في حل مشكلته، أما المرحلة الثانية وهي
تطبيق الإطار النظري في العمليات الإج ا رئية التي استند عليها البحث ، فقد تم تحديد مستلزماته وهي اختيار أنموذجين من
مجموعتين من المشاريع التابعة لأبرز معماريو حركة ما بعد الحداثة و المدرسة التفكيكية، وفق المبر ا رت الم ذكورة في إج ا رءات
البحث، كما تطلب التطبيق لإج ا رءات البحث تحديد مؤش ا رت نظرية للد ا رسة الخاضعة للتطبيق و أهداف البحث وطريقة جمع
المعلومات و قياس المتغي ا رت و أسلوب إج ا رء القياسات على المشاريع في الد ا رسة العملية و تحليل نتائجها.
و أخي ا رً نوقشت النتائج و الاستنتاجات النهائية ضمن محاور عدة؛ جاءت لتؤكد أهمية الإطار النظ ري الذي حدده البحث
لمفهوم التمثيل من ناحية نضوج المعرفة النظرية التي وفرها، مما أفرز أنموذجاً نظرياً ضم أنماط صيغ التمثيل المرتبط بتوجهات
حركة ما بعد الحداثة و المدرسة التفكيكية.

Daylight Design Graphs for Baghdad City Sky

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 7, Issue 22, Pages 216-238

Baghdad city constitutes one of the areas have clear sky with complex and ununiform
distribution of light in the sky dome. This was one of the explanations why there is few
studies concern with daylighting design in clear skies, from there, this research oriented to
devise a new method that can assist in achieving the appropriate levels of lighting for
interior spaces. The aim of this research is tempted to find a method that can help designers
in achieving the appropriate levels of daylight in architectural spaces with different forms
and sizes.
The annual distribution rate of daylight was calculated for the horizontal surfaces of
different orientations and unobstructed horizontal surface Furthermore account the Intensity
of sky light and sun light on vertical surfaces of building facades opposite to the windows.
Been reached a number of Graphs as protractor used with architectural drawings
(horizontal plans and vertical sections), and by adopting of such Graphs, designers can
measure the levels of daylight in any points within the space.
Applied this method on a number of design characteristics of shape and direct the
window and measure its influence in enlightened points within the space as their distance
changes away from window. The research found a number of conclusions linked between the
predictability of the distribution of daylighting levels within the space and pattern of
distribution of windows within its walls..

Building performance A study for evaluate prefabricated residational buildings performance

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 7, Issue 22, Pages 255-277

The performance concept expressed as the distance between what is needed and what is realized, and a
solution to the problem of evaluating the suitability of the product for the application, which in turn is an
important factor from which to evaluate the building and therefore the identification and development paths of
practice and professional experience in the housing field . the performance concept adopted after the need
dictated by the new circumstances in the construction field as a result of the emergence of new concepts aim
was to move away from compliance to traditional construction systems and the transfer rate from site to the
factory .an experience of prefabrication can be solution to a growing problem of housing reliance on the mass
production and the provision at the time of implementation as well as the economy and resources, these process
of manufacturing - often - at the expense of performance dimension for the user and his need to shelter .
Through a review of performance studies and prefabricated structural systems studies. the research
pointed :” the absence of a clear vision of the performance concept and its impacts on residential buildings
prefabricated and the absence of mechanism for evaluate it “ to be the research problem .
The aim of the research is determined to : “ provide a vision of the performance concept and its
impacts on residential buildings prefabricated and re-evaluation of these buildings in accordance with the
performance concept “. To achieve his aim , the research separate the procedural theory aspects of the
operational aspects without losing sight of the integration of both theoretical and practical dimension to the
performance concept . In this context, research split into two ; the first terms definition the performance concept
and related aspects and its dimensions up to the extraction a conceptual framework for the basic concept The
second terms addressed the field study the adoption of Al-Salam neighborhood in Baghdad as a case study and
research was (50) random sample of residents of this district to evaluate the residential buildings performance,
which made it possible to visualize residential complex performance (under study) in general . .