ISSN: 1999-1738

Volume 9, Issue 27

Volume 9, Issue 27, Autumn 2013, Page 1-92

Urban Integration of Historic Centers: Analytical Study of the Factors of Urban Integration at Al-Karkh Historic Center

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 9, Issue 27, Pages 1-27

Historic centers are considered one of the tangible forms of civilization in terms of depicting the extensions of the past. They form one of the intensively proposed controversies in the modern field in regard to the possibility of dealing with them, the objectives of development and conserving them as they represent the merge of the old and the new. This is manifested in the merger of contradictions and the changing value resulting from urban interference in order to link the historic centers with other parts of the city through linear streets that penetrate its urban structure and divide its urban texture, causing a common problem for most Islamic Arab historic centers.
Several of philosophical, theoretical and architectural theses have concentrated on identifying the relations between the new and the old of the historic centers, such as the relation of urban integration that represents the integration of urban environmental components in regard to the social, economic and environmental function and its integration at the physical aspect. Through studying and analyzing the urban theses that deal with the factors of urban integration at the functional and physical level and the urban theses that discuss the transformation of urban structure. According to this perspective, the research problem was identified as follows: the absence of a clear vision of the urban integration factors at the visual and cognitive levels between the new (the penetrating linear streets) and the old urban fabric in the structure of historic centers through the feature of transformation in its urban structure. As for the research thesis, it is related to employing the penetrating linear street to achieve the urban integration at the visual and structural levels through the feature of transformation at the structure of the historic center as a basic condition to achieve urban integration. This research aims at:
1) Detecting the factors of urban integration between the old and the new in the urban structure of historic centers at the visual level by the integration of the urban scene and at the constructional level by the constructional integration of urban structure.
2) Identifying the mechanism of transformation to conserve the urban structure system of the historic center in a way that achieves urban integration.
For the purpose of treating the research problem and maintaining the objectives and theses of the research, a hypothetical form of urban integration for historic centers was built in a way that embraces the factors of urban integration and the methods of urban structure transformation.
The research has adopted the rules of spatial syntax in the analysis and measurement of urban integration factors, through identifying the structural characteristics of the historic urban structure and the implementation of the transmission mechanisms of urban structure. The types of the urban structure were analyzed based on the analysis of the elected urban structure using the spatial relations (topology) of the urban structure elements (bulk and space) and analyzing the same using mathematical tools that brings the elements together to a specific level.
The results showed that the achievement of urban integration of historic centers could be completed in two stages; the first is the transmission of urban structure through the utilization of one of the transmission mechanisms and their application concepts (at the comprehensive level of the structure) and the second is the achievement of urban integration factors through structural characteristics(comprehensive and topical) of the urban structure where they used the transmission concepts in re-employing the penetrating linear streets to achieve urban integration between the linear street and the old texture. The results showed:
1) An appropriateness of two concepts of the transmission of the urban structure of historic center; which are restructuring the urban structure and the original compositional method for the pattern to achieve the urban integration at the comprehensive level through the achievement of high values to measure the clarity, centrality and directionality of the urban structure.
2) Achievement of the factors of urban integration between the old and the new through conserving deep compositionalcharacteristics(comprehensive and topical) of the original urban structure for Islamic Arab historic centers that were tested to measure these properties. During the process of finding a solution for the research problem, a solution for the general problem can be achieved; which is a penetrating linear street that forms the center of the structure of the historic center. It should be reused and approximated to the old main commercial axes in regard to its compositional relations to the old urban structure.

The application of FengShuiin the design of contemporary architecture and its environment

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 9, Issue 27, Pages 28-43

This research discuss a scientific vision about the natural components of the environment and its effect on the urban environment and human in particular, all this will be discussed within the framework of an ancient discipline known in China as the art to determine the best conditions for the construction of buildings or development of cities, called "FengShui".It is a practical technique, designed to find the right place, good direction, good shape, good proportion and good arrangement for designing the best environment in which to live. "FengShui" is a mean of assessing the environment and provides the techniques for local construction according to the particularities of each place. Its long history has enabled it to be considered as a science rich of knowledge and concrete ways of working. This is a technique that takes action based on local conditions, including geographical conditions, climate, habits and customs of the people, culture but also the expertise in construction.
The casestudy of this research is the high-rising buildings in Haifa street to be assessed according to its relationship with the site and other characteristics of the area in the large scale and then the effect of the transportation and the road system that leads to it and its relationship with the surrounding areas especially the organic neighborhoods behind, finally the study discuss the height and shape of the buildings according to the principles of "FengShui", and at the end the study suggests proposals for the better exploitation of the environmental component to achieve the sustainability that we all need.

Effectiveness of Sustainable Urban Projects in the city of Baghdad A comparative study of sustainable development projects in Adhamiya and Kadhimiya District

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 9, Issue 27, Pages 44-61

This research comes in an attempt to evaluate and compare between the efficiency of a selected sustainable urban projects from Baghdad city (Al Adhamiya and Al Kadhimiya areas) through applying the criteria ofurban sustainability and compared using SWOT analyses model(represents one strong word: S = strengths, W = weaknesses, O = opportunities, T = threats.), this done by examine the most important strategies which targeted to extrapolate the urban form as a vital sustainable structure, and has become a standard which could measure and evaluate the impact of the application for sustainable criteria. These strategies know as Smart Growth Strategies which include, Development, Design, Transportation, Open & Natural Space Protection, Open Space Creation, Sense of Place, and Urban Community Strategies. Here this search tries to extract the most local standards that consistent with the nature and environment of sustainable urban Iraqi projects in general and Baghdad in particular by reviewing the Smart Growth principles and strategies. However, the aim is to determine the effectiveness and the successfulness of the adopted urban projects in Baghdad in applying the urban sustainability criteria in the one hand, and to extract the most important positive points which serve the local environment and utilize them to establish the foundations for possible urban standards adopted in the evaluation of sustainable urban future projects on the others. Therefore, the most important findings in this research is the possibility of evaluate the performance of sustainable urban projects using SWOT analyses model through examining the internal environment which represented by the Strengths and Weaknesses of each project and external environment which represented by the Opportunities and Threatens of the economic situation, social life and environmental conditions. In conclusion, the search developed a local, comprehensive checklist which adopts the urban sustainability standards in the one hand, and at the same time, it can be used and developed to evaluate the performance of future urban sustainable development projects..

Developing Green Infrastructure for Baghdad City

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 9, Issue 27, Pages 62-83

The public green spaces in Baghdad city have an obvious shortage and doesn’t fulfill and meet the needs of the population and the required open space criteria, moreover these green spaces are disjointed, disconnected and does not function as a unified system, that is why it suffers from neglect which contributes to deterioration of the city’s environment and increasing air pollution.
Human beings depended on nature into providing clean air and good health, with the growth of the population and the urban areas, there has been negative influence on the natural environmental system. A new term lately appeared “Green Infrastructure”especially in the developed countries (USA, UK and other countries in Europe), as one form of solutions to conserve the natural environmental system of green and open spaces. Consequently this thesis depended on this new green space approach to solve the green spaces problem in Baghdad city and suggested new sites in different locations in the city to be a new green spaces connected to the existing green spaces in Baghdad. This will increase the public green space areas, accessibility to these areas and social cohesion, it will also contribute to the improvement of the city’s environment by reducing air pollution and reducing air temperature especially during the long summer season. Other economic benefits could be achieved by planning for a connected network of green spaces in Baghdad city as well..

Sound environment of Cities: A Comparison Study for Sound Environment between Modern and Traditional urban fabric in Baghdad city

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 9, Issue 27, Pages 24-35

The sound environment in the Traditional Baghdad city specified with sound elements and relationships between sounds that define human sound environment, and had the greatest impact where natural sounds as human voice, animal and natural sound in addition to the voices of the traditional industries and the old means of transportation.
The Recent changes in the traditional urban fabric that accompanied with the requirements of contemporary life. Of transportation, machinery and various industries affected in the structure of the traditional Baghdad urban fabric and Incision straight roads to the movement of vehicles and concentration height buildings on both sides of these roads, with the changing pattern of use of residential to commercial, affected on
the sound environmental and on perceptional preference for the traditional city.For this reason, An analytical methods and questionnaire studies were conducted in several areas in Al-Kadhimiya city as an example of the traditional cities. The areas included a wide
range of sound types and different sound level, from highly traffic-noise in Akkad Street to quiet Al-zuqaq (traditional street).Consistent relationships were found between measured overall sound levels and perceived sound quality, however, sound source identification was found to be a stronger predictor of sound quality than measured sound levels. Sound quality was negatively related to presence of technological sounds
(e.g., road-traffic noise, gasoline generators) in modern type of City Street and positively related to presence of nature sounds in traditional street..

Policies to Develop Transportation Systems: Alawi Region in Baghdad City

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 9, Issue 27, Pages 36-57

Al-Alawi region is the most important transportation center of Al- Karkh district in the city of Baghdad, its importance to this district the same as the beating heart for the human body, where it has a number of privileges including association of all axes destinations movement that lead to important government institutions, such as building of the Iraqi Museum, the train station, government buildings and others. Many inside transportation vehicles move out and back to this center as well the external transportation vehicles do, either to the northern, southern, eastern and western sides of Iraq, or to the outskirts of the city of Baghdad. It is also surrounded by housing complexes vitality and tourism companies that deal with many kinds of travelers inside or outside Iraq, in addition of all that, it plays a great role in facilitating the movement of population to Rusafa, beside of its heritage and historical importance. Unfortunately, this region is currently experiencing high traffic jams and cross circulation between the movement of people and vehicles. From this point, we come to the definition of the research aim, which is that the importance developing policies and strategies to solve the problem of traffic congestion, and the intersection of movement between people and vehicles, and between vehicles themselves. To achieve the goal of this research we adopted several strategies that came in four axes, the first one discussed the problems of the study area, while the second one shows its analysis, secondly, then differentiation the theoretical framework, thirdly, at last concluding the applying operations are submitted which represented by electing four main items of detailed theoretical field, studies the process of questionnaire to the pioneers of that region, to reached the final results and come out with the conclusions that stresses on the need for separation between movement of people and vehicles and to develop the possible solutions such as placing the bridges and tunnels for pedestrians and vehicles, and electric trains, , and open additional streets, and activating the role of traffic signals, as well as the study of economic and social dimensions and services..

Minarets of Baghdad: Monuments of Architectural Identity

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 9, Issue 27, Pages 58-75

Minarets are distinctive architectural elements which defines the architectural identity of the Islamic cities both old and new through its vertical appearance ... The skyline of Baghdad -as one of the oldest Islamic capitals – is distinguished by set of minarets dating back to different eras ... These minarets seem as important elements that
determine the place identity of Baghdad in drawings and photographs of foreign travelers ... The heritage minarets of Baghdad had architectural features that distinguish it from other minarets of other Islamic cities, despite the succession of periods and foreign influences.
In the modern era, many minarets in Baghdad was built carrying strange
architectural forms and characteristics from the distinctive identity of traditional minarets of Baghdad, may be due to the lack of knowledge in determining the distinguishing architectural characteristics of that heritage minarets...
This paper aims to diagnose the architectural characteristics of the heritage minarets of Baghdad, which the paper suppose that these characteristics are distinct despite succession of periods and are important elements in defining the distinctive identity of Baghdad sky line, in order to provide database for architectural designers, to employ that knowledge in their future designs....

Interchanging interaction between heritage and technical in the local architectural practice: An Empirical Study of the heritage elements in Baghdad

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 9, Issue 27, Pages 76-92

An architectural local practice facing a crisis associated with losing the local intermediated feature for local heritage and rapid development, which is a feature of the current era. The research focuses on the case of intermediation in expression between heritage privacy (as it cannot be denied the whole heritage or accept the whole) and the expression of the spirit of the times and new techniques to ensure the continuity of architectural output achieved in time and space thus The research problem absented of equilibrium expressionist architectural
output arises between the ancient and the modern..Proceeding from the need Establishment the successes of architectural based inherited to attributes of the positive image associated with sense and collective memory and without verbatim copying or repeat boring of its components may represent objective of this research offering mechanics to harness
developments technological era to achieve the balancing expressive with local heritage to ensure re-line local architectural back on track right through emphasize in their possession on elements and traditional forms of obstetric capacity for new forms stating the design process
and architectural practice as a whole.
To achieve the target research had to belimiteda steps which represent as:
1- Clarify the role of the architectural heritage of the container to the external forces of change (represented by contemporary technology) to confront the case of alienation.
2- highlight the technical for the development of architectural production to ensure continuity and contact with the former
3- Recovery mechanisms to modernize and applied to the heritage elements of Baghdad heritage an elected for the application to provide alternatives to represent architectural designer formal possibilities to connect with the old in a new modern kind of case the revival of traditional elements..