ISSN: 1999-1738

Volume 10, Issue 1

Volume 10, Issue 1, Spring 2014, Page 21-147

The Effect of Urban Street Planting on Improving the Climate of Baghdad city

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 21-37

The aim of this research is to study the effect of tree planting on the reduction of thermal load of solar radiation falling on the area of Baghdad city and its contribution to weather treatments; since the temperature of green mass of trees is less than the human body and higher than air temperature in winter, so one expects condense tree plantation and foliage may participate in reducing air temperature in summer and could make the climate of the city to approach near the human temperature comfort limits .The impetus to encourage the authors to undertake the research is the positive results and indications derived from earlier authors' research work and that done by other researchers. Recent advances of modern scientific and technological in the field of electronic instrumentation measurements and sophisticated thermal imaging devices, which are expected to help in measurement and obtain temperature pattern of every point on the trees or at any point on block trees, besides measuring the thermal effect of shading on human body of people using the road (the camera has an accuracy of (0.1 oC).
In order to ensure high precision and optimum reliability of experimental results in the proposed work, experts from the College of Agriculture, University of Baghdad were approached to assist in selecting one of the best suitable tree for Baghdad environment. Their choice was ( Albizia Lebbech ), and by the use of (GIS) photos of Baghdad city, the most suitable site to perform the experimental measurements in Baghdad city is chosen as the Baghdad University, in view of abundance of Albizia in addition to the availability of all other required variables. With the kind permission of the Presidency of Baghdad University, experiments have been performed on the 21st of June 2012, since this day has the highest amount of solar radiation all over the year The results and analysis have shown that there is a distinct effect of shading with trees in reducing temperature street air temperature and in providing better human effective temperature than shading the walkways with buildings . In an attempt to theoretically verify the extent of this impact on the entire city of Baghdad calculated, only the whole length of the main streets of Baghdad city are found by satellite images "GIS" ( within the boundaries of Municipality of Baghdad). It shows that the forestation process, including the effect of shading and evaporative cooling is equivalent to 45 million tones of refrigeration, which certainly will help in reducing the required energy for buildings' cooling . Therefore, the results will encourage in recommending forestation over all main streets as well as all streets in residential districts, which in return will change the whole climate of the city of Baghdad. ﯿﻬ ﺒﺎﻟﻛﺎﻤ

Moving architecture The Impact of position movement of architectureon the recipient

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 56-67

The moveable building is considered to be one of the most recent productions of the era which is related to the concepts of the benefit, beautyand the technique. These concepts have great impact on the movement of society and human being through his awareness to his recent needs that are changing through the time, which effect the role of techniques that related to the humans services through spotlighting the relationship between these effects from one side and the human from the other side to get anew architectural product represented through the moveable building. This product interacts with the humans existance in the society through many factors which can be used communicatively with the society in general.This product affects the human directly becouse it’s a product which has an aesthetic action, functional, and technical. This research illustrates the connection of the moveable pattern elements through its design and the effect of this movement to the recipient; this point illustrats the need of studying the relationship between the moveable product and human.
The target of this research is to put a cognitive framework leads to illustrate knowing the moveable building through establishing a theoretical framework which will connect between the movement in the building and its relationship with the recipient,for this reason the problem of the research is ( the absense and deficiency of the existing knowledge about the relationship between the moveable building and the recipient ), after that apply this relationship to a number of particular knowleging indicators, analyse this applicaion, illustrate the relationship between the moveable building and the recipient and finally find conclusions for Research.ﻌ.

Thermal Effect of External Cladding Materials on The Microclimate in Urban Environment

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 87-99

It has been found recently, that many architects are using new imported materials for external cladding, which might cause an increase in air temperature of the urban environment, and creating new microclimate thermally differ from other places according to the type of cladding materials used on building façade , especially in commercial streets, which is believed that most people feels changes in thermal difference in commercial streets more than the difference in residential districts, where people are usually indoors.
So due to the lack of information about the effect of such material on urban environment, the paper aimed to contribute in discovering the effect of thermal reflectivity and emissivity of number of cladding materials commonly used by local designers, in order that designers can have useful information, so that they will be free to choose the proper and the best suitable materials.
For getting better and more realistic results, an experimental model of a part of commercial street represents 8 three story buildings Scale 1:10 has been built on the roof of Department of Architecture, University of Technology , Baghdad, Iraq during August & September 2012.
The selected scale model has been chosen because it is suitable for taking measurements with the available infra red image camera (Fluke Came Ti32), the electronic digital thermometers as well as the suitability for the available thickness of selected cladding materials The skeleton of the commercial street model has designed in a way that it can help in changing and testing easily any type of cladding material.
The experiments for six common cladding materials, shows that the material with highest thermal effect on microclimate during day time is the white aluminum composite panels, and the least effect is by using ruff white cement rendering.
It has to be pointed out her that using the experimental model in this study is closer to reality than mathematical calculations even when reducing the size of the model, due to the fact that model factor is influenced directly proportional to the model scale, and because we could not find commercial streets with uniform and similar cladding material..

The Effect of Religious Monuments in the Plan of the ArabianIslamic city Samarra City – Case Study

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 127-147

Religious monument is considered as one of the most distinguished elements which form one of the components of architectural structure, religious monument’s importance stands out from the religious affiliation of the city’s people (Spiritual affiliation). Also considered one of the distinguished architectural elements and recognized architectural identity, which have drawn the mental image for the formation of religious cities in people’s memory. The research depends on studying the plans of the religious cities specifically the Arabian Islamic cities; for its religious importance and the clearness of the religious factor’s impact in its creation and planning, and from reviewing the previous studies those dealt with analyzing the Arabian Islamic city the research problem had been determined in “There is a knowledge gap about the role of religious monuments in planning of the Arabic Islamic cities”,the research hypothesis have been formulated as The religious monument has a regulatory role in planning the Arabian Islamic city, in its impact on axial connection on both local stage and global level.
The research has defined the religious monuments as landmarks or architectural elements of the city’s plan which differentiate in attendant appearance in people’s memory, which is generally showing in worship places, from all that the research’s target has been determined as: Clarifying religious monuments' role in Planning of Arab Islamic cities according to the impact that it have played as a regulatory element for the urban fabric. Samarra have been chosen for the required practical study, considering it’s one of the most important Arab Islamic cities, for what it has of religious monuments, which perform as regulatory power for the local and global connection, research confirms from experience research’s letter using (GIS: ArcView 3.3) computer software for the chosen urban formation that: the impact of the religious factor reflects on the components of the urban fabric of the Arabian Islamic city from both of the form and the space in its planning and regulation, which shows on the group of planning elements for the city, also the religious monuments have an effect on the orientation of spatial connection, and creating public areas in the city, and preparing complete spaces which have a high permeability around its locations, As well as its effect on the most complete distribution type in other parts of the system.ﯿﻌ

Revivalist Translation in Contemporary Arabic Architecture

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 38-55

Translation lead in general a prominent role to transfer different sciences , knowledge and cultures, particularly in keeping up with scientific and literary developments. Because of the importance of translation and its relationship to architecture led to the identification of general axis of the research, which represents the “Employment translation in architecture”.
The research discussed the previous Architectural Studies that related to concept of translation and show that there was a difference in dealing with the translation of various movements in architecture, and the appearance of several employments can be identified with differences, pluralism, revivalism, interpretation, paradox, then the research problem identified by ((lack of objective holistic vision reveals privacy revivalist translation in contemporary Arab architecture)), and the objective of this research was represented by ((the formation of a theoretical, objective, comprehensive framework for the properties of the revivalist translation and using them to discover the application privacy of the concept in Arab contemporary architecture)) .Research reached conclusions and recommendations..

Effect of Virtual Reality Technology on the Accomplishment of the Natural Self-Existing In Virtual Interior Space

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 68-86

Due to the major technological development happened in the last 20 years, technology had great role in changing the architectural constants and classifying its priorities. Many studies focused on technology notion and its application in architecture. But they did not focus on the rule of technology to realize Human reliance on internal and external spaces in which the people spend most of their time in.The information technology with its developments has great impact on actions & behaviors of human beings. Here the research idea in “Lack of sufficient scientific knowledge about the impact of technology of virtual reality to achieve the existential nature of the personality in virtual space. The search aimed to discuss "Clarifying the role of virtual reality technology to establish an internal virtual theoretical framework of space which seeks to achieve human existential lost in realistic space achieving the goal required having Comprehensive theoretical framework .
This theoretical framework as a first stage of theoretical framework .The second stage of tries to clarify the main levels of the practical study to clarify truth fullness of indicators achieved through out:selecting items of theoretical framework. The final conclusions of the research which include theoretical framework conclusions, application results conclusions.ﻟﻌﺒ

Architecture Design Methods According to Advance Human's Intellect & Technology

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 10, Issue 1, Pages 100-126

This paper explain design method as a ring or relationship link between theory and applied , and it discuss the important developments in the field of architectural design methods according to advance human's intellect & his technology ; firstly from intuition thinking ( according to try and error ) to the industrial revolution that is followed mathematical and rational limitation thinking , and this thought go directly to un-limitation thinking that’s followed new scientific revolution , and it is arrive to contemporary digital revolution . Beside this that paper search for a development relationship between architectural form and architectural design methods .
Finally must be recommendation how to effect this important development in
design methods and tools on the task of teach architectural design. ﯿﺘ .