ISSN: 1999-1738

Volume 11, Issue 3

Volume 11, Issue 3, Summer 2015, Page 172-294

The role of formal characteristics in harmony townscape holy city of Najaf - Case Study

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 172-196

This research deals with how to deal with the formal elements constituting the urban scene and its formal characteristics to achieve the phenomenon of harmony in urban centers through the construction of an integrated theoretical model for the phenomenon of ( harmony ) , it is determined through the basics and fundamentals of harmony and the main factors that depend on it and finding the values the formal characteristics of harmony and the degrees of harmony, and according to this perspective have been identified ,the major problem of the research is: the lack of clarity of the role of the formal characteristics of the elements of the formal components of the elevation in achieving harmony in townscape, so the goal of research is to: building theoretical framework for the phenomenon of harmony in the townscape in its comprehensive concept, and the most important results of the research to build a clear structure based on an inclusive concept of all factors and vocabulary influencing the phenomenon, the phenomenon of harmony is represented with the total characteristics of the formal elements of townscape at the level of the part and the whole, Each element depends on the total variables affecting them..

Excesses to permissions and building codes and their impact on the urban environment in Baghdad City

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 214-240

The spreading of the unregulated construction phenomenon in Iraq cities become a serious transgression of the regulations and legislation. The current master plan of Baghdad city no longer responsive to the actual needs of the city, It must be renovation to commensurate with the population growth and city development , so the research problem of this study states that: There are shortcomings in the existing laws and regulations that must keep pace with population, demographic and technology changes, legislation comprehensiveness and not tailored to the requirements of the laws and clauses are applicable, as well as the absence of the city townscape special controls. Based on these facts, the hypothesis of the present study is the importance of applying controls for construction legislation & cities master plan and not violating, by strengthening available means for the municipalities to limit the excesses, there are a number of promotive frames in long-term, and must be a quick and decisive decisions in short term.This study was conducted through a questionnaire survey for the technical staff involved in planning and the research concluded the extent of knowledge of those technical staff about the existence of the legislation and planning laws, their level, its comprehensiveness, its effectiveness, and the effectiveness of the procedures and the extent of its implementation and compliance with. At the end, the study makes recommendations and suggestions to improve the status.أصبح انتشار ظاىرة البناء العشوائي في مدن الع ا رق يشكل تجاو ا ز خطي ا ر للأنظمة والتشريعات، حيث ان المخطط الاساسي الحالي لمدينة بغداد الذي لم يعد ممبيا لمحاجات الفعمية لممدينة الامر الذي يجعل تحديث المخطط الاساسي ضرورة ليتناسب مع النمو السكاني والتطور الحاصل في المدينة.
تتمثل المشكمة البحثية في قصور القوانين والتشريعات الحالية لعدم مواكبتيا لمتغي ا رت السكانية والديموغ ا رفية والتكنولوجيا، شمولية التشريعات وعدم تفصيميا إلى قوانين واشت ا رطات وبنود قابمو لمتطبيق، وكذلك عدم وجود ض وابط خاصة بالمشيد الحضري لممدينة، وعميو كانت فرضية البحث ىي: أىمية تطبيق التشريعات الخاصة بضوابط البناء والمخططات الأساسية لممدن وعدم مخالفتيا من خلال تعزيز الوسائل المتاحة لدى البمديات لمحد من التجاو ا زت، وىناك عدد من الاطر التحسينية عمى المدى الطويل، ولابد من ق ا ر ا رت سريعة وحازمة عمى المدى القصير. اجريت الد ا رسة من خلال إعداد مسح إستبياني لمكوادر الفنية المشتغمة في العمل التخطيطي، اوستنتج البحث مدى معرفة ىذه الكوادر الفنية بوجود التشريعات والقوانين التخطيطية، مستواىا، شموليتيا، فعاليتيا، ومدى فعالية الإج ا رءات المتبعة ومدى تنفيذىا والتقيد بيا، وفي النياية قدمت
الد ا رسة توصيات واقت ا رحات لتحسين الوضع القائم.

Impact of Religious Tourism landmarks in Authenticity Dimensions of Urban Identity for the city

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 259-274

The most important characteristic of urban cities is the presence of identity characterizes types of architecture. Most of these cities suffer from the decline and deterioration, and become blocks of adjacent buildings, which are copies of a particular architecture and tradition and simulate them. That led to disappear originality. The importance of this research on the link between the role of tourism attraction within the central cities for rooting there urban identity. Through the review of previous studies on the subject of tourist attraction,and after clarify landmarks kind, the research problem has identified as the "Missing of comprehensive knowledge about the role of religious tourist landmarks in dimensions of authenticity urban identity for the city" .The goal of research is reaching to the role of religious tourist landmarks in urban development projects to clarify urban identity authenticity dimensions. The research adopted descriptive analytical method and draw the most important variables, indicators and vocabulary, which has been employed in the application of the study, which included analysis many of elected local development projects..

A comparative study for the effect of green roofs in the local climate of Najaf city

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 197-213

Most Iraqi cities suffer from a stark negligence in achieving equilibrium between the constructed objects and their effects on local climate, especially in providing green areas. This led to disturbing the natural equilibrium in the urban environmental system, which in turn led to an increase in temperature degrees inside the cities, resulting in the cities to move outside of the temporal comfort boundaries. Therefore, this research studies one of the technologies that reduce this temporal effect that was generated by the shortage of green areas in the city, which is the green roofs technology. The green roofs are important technologies that have effects on the local climate, they provide temporal comfort inside the building and outside of it, therefore, they reduce the effect of heat island especially at locations with hot and dry climate, however, the efficiency of the plants in green roofs differs according to the climatic nature and the location specifics. From here, the research problem was assigned about “The lack of a clear picture about the rule that green roofs play in environmental solutions in buildings”, and the object was assigned as “Creating a clear and measurable notion about the rule that green roofs play in the climatic aspects for buildings within the urban level” while the research hypothesis is “The green roofs have a positive rule in improving the environmental performance of buildings”..

Design requirements of Sustainable passengers’ Land-transportation stations

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 241-258

Public transport stations and terminals are considered as a core to achieve sustainable development in society which needs linking of various transportation modes in an unified place to create an interaction between passengers and the facilities there in most developed counties had witnessed an increasing attention to encourage such interaction in public transport facilities. Sustainability has become an influential factor in the design of these facilities. Approaches to sustainable design have become increasingly important. This paper presents useful guidelines to the designer of these facilities with focal concern to sustainable factors that needs to be adhered to in the design. The paper reviews various studies and recent literature relevant to the design and links available know how to sustainable requirements. It defines the problem as '' the required needs for designers to understand the needs for sustainable design for public transport facilities". Based on this it suggests a hypothesis that indicates sustainable design will increase interaction between users and the building facilitating transport modes. From the literature, a theoretical frame work was achieved with significant relation to sustainability. Reviewing existing facilities of transportation buildings in developed countries through this frame work has guided the research to reach a set of findings which could assist in the design of such facilities thus the problem is given a direction to solve and assist in the design.".

The Urban Addition An Analytical Study of the Relation Between the Additive and the Origin in the Contemporary Urban Projects

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 11, Issue 3, Pages 275-294

The research Explore one of the important topics that emerged from the contemporary urban
development policies, by adding new urban entities within the city fabric, which represented by the
urban addition, which appeared at different levels, evolved gradually with different contemporary
urban orientations, which began to call in at the beginning of the twentieth century to go back to the
inner-city and their historic city centers and addition to it in order to develop. the concept of urban
addition crystallized in many literatures that dealt with the relationship between the addition and
origin, and the process of creating a new integrated, interactive, and communicative with the existing
urban fabric, where the contemporary urban trends varied in its dealings with the Transition joint
between the addition and the original by finding the transitions boundaries or dissolves within the
fabric according to the value of that existing fabric (the origin), Whether it was historical, ecological,
functional, natural, cultural or other values, Accordingly the Research problem defined as;" The
Limits of the previous studies which is dealing with the mechanisms of the urban addition and
the forces governing the relationship between the addition and origin".
To deal with the research problem a theoretical framework has been built for the concept of urban
Addition, in general, and the relationship between additive and origin, in particular. The research
clarify the variation of additive types to the urban fabric, whether [conservative addition] within the
historic fabric that contains a high historical value, or developmental Addition within.modern fabric
characterized by the disintegrate and chaos, that you need to be organize through new urban