ISSN: 1999-1738

Volume 12, Issue 1

Volume 12, Issue 1, Autumn 2016, Page 10-251


The Effect of Moisturizing Treatment of Wind-Catcher on Internal Thermal Environment

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 10-18

Wind-catchers in traditional architecture in Iraq were small in dimensions, where their horizontal cross section and their largest section did not exceed 0.20 square meters. AS a result, architects abandoned their use in modern building designs, especially after electric fans made available and adopted in buildings. Due to the importance of natural air on human health and as natural air is rich in refreshing negative ions that artificial ventilation lacks, which is usually charged with positive ions, causing drowsiness and depression. New large wind-catchers of more than 2 square meters in cross section were employed by the author in house design responsive to hot climate at the end of the eighties in Iraq. Such wind-catchers have proved their efficiency in the provision of natural ventilation and lowering internal temperatures during spring and autumn and summer nights. So came the idea of this research by moisturizing the wind catcher walls to raise the performance in summer. For this purpose practical study has been done by building Wind catcher lined with bricks burned at a temperature ranging between 1150 - 750 C at which the capillary action integrated, making the water content moderate. Measurements shows in days of 43o C that the moisturized wind catcher reduces air temperature of space connected to the wind catcher to about 12 ° C.

Effect Of The Double Walls On Thermal Internal Environment Of Buildings In Baghdad

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 35-51

the external walls represent one of the most important structural elements that have a direct effect on the thermal performance of the building.In order to achieve the aim of the research the experimental approach and style of analytical study were adopted. The current study included two main aspects: first, the theoretical side: Which included the time delay factor calculation and cooling load depending on the Radiant Time Series (RTS) theory that achieved accurate and detailed results and ease of application. While the second aspect included the practical test and measurement .The theoretical results achieved good convergence with practical results margin 22.3% increase at the expense of the electric power. Results of the study showed that the Exterior cladding material with large mass by using perforated brick of 120 mm thickness recorded the highest proportion of the economy in the amount of electric energy which considered to be the best thermally. However, Exterior cladding material (such as black Marble) and cladding materials with fewer block (such as composite- panel) represent the worst thermal performance because they made the lowest economic proportion of the amount of electric power . As well as, concluded that increasing the thickness of cavities from 25mm to 100mm may reduce the consumed amount of electric power about 4.3% ..

Visual integration of Historic Cities Centers- Al Rasheed Street

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 81-107

Historic centers are considered as one of the main problems introduced in the contemporary literatures, The concept of visual integration was discussed in several studies on several levels (philosophical, urban, architectural), while they did not get to intensively within the studies dealing with the concept on a holistic level and in all its aspects .
The research problem defind as, "The lack of image about the concept and indicators of street visual integration " The hypothesis of Search is "Vary the effect of the elements , relationships and properties visual for elevations at the level of the Part and the whole contribute to the visual integration " The main objective of this research "to find the most important elements, relationships and properties visual affecting as Indicators measurable and verification components to contribute to the visual integration of townscape"
It was necessary for study to explain some of the basic concepts such as the concept of urban integration ,historic cities centers access to the concept of visual integration, as well as the study of properties and relations visual for townscape .
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Thermal Environmental Treatments for residential buildigs In the oil fields

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 128-147

The industry growth and development was one of the reasons for the emergence of cities, the oil industry has been affected in the establishment of these cities in the environmental aspects, Oil fields are considered heavy industry areas.
The research aims: Identification of environmental treatments which make the building efficient thermally and therefore to reduce the impact of climatic conditions and pollution In urban complexes inside the oil fields .
The research concluded a set of conclusions which have been associated two sides: First side has been associated in the theoretical framework, the flipside link to the results of the practical application. The research found the environmental treatments of urban complexes Inside the local oil fields, Impact in improving the residential environment inside that complexes commensurate with distance from the sources of environmental pollution and improve the efficiency of the thermal performance of residential units..

The Indicators of Creative Thinking Patters in Architectural Design and The Forms of Continuity for The Designer's Direction of its

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 166-186

There is no doubt that creative thinking an area refined human activity since ancient times, for that scientific research institutions attented it since the mid-twentieth century , society humanitarian civilized increasingly need more to the creative which can not be achieved without the development of skills and thinking abilities activity creative different cultural norms . Despite the issue of architectural creativity, especially in the architectural design process importance, but can say that and also that every thinking in any area of life areas of special rules and attributes define features pattern, the to think of the architectural work to him is the other his patterns have rules and attributes define features creative. What research aims to create a clear vision for patterns of creative thinking in the field of architecture] that can be used as a yardstick to judge the availability of creative thinking patterns in architectural work indicators, and determine the forms of communication between the architect and these patterns, so the search is divided into five parts; the first part deals synopsis of thinking and patterns, while Part II deals with extraction and research of the problem and research objectives and approach. The third part presents the study that have been developed in two dimensions; creative thinking in architectural design and stages, and creative thinking skills in architectural design. In the fourth part is the discussion of creative thinking patterns and indicators. general conclusions and recommendations made at the fifth and final.

Expressive Appropriateness in contemporary architectural production

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 207-226

The concept of Appropriateness has emerged by thousands of years, since the architect Vitruvius, as one of the most important theoretical aspects that achieve integrated architecture. It has evolved over the years in the postmodern architecture to the importance of the recipient and his reading of the architectural text. The concept varied and numerous such as ( functional, structural, expressive , environmental, social, and economic) Appropriateness .
The research emerged many of the architectural and non architectural studies related to the concept of Appropriateness, where achieved to the importance of the expressive side and expressive Appropriateness. The research identified problem as "Lack of a comprehensive & objective perception about the expressive Appropriateness in contemporary architectural production and the relationship between the designer intentions and the mechanisms of expressive Appropriateness on one hand and what actually achieved in production on the other ". The goal of this research is to "form an objective and comprehensive framework for expressive appropriateness properties in the contemporary architectural production and explore the relationship between the designer intentions and the mechanisms on one hand and what actually done in the production according to the opinion of the recipient" .
The research built a framework contained a primary and secondary items , then elected goals and mechanisms of expressive Appropriateness and applied them on an elected group of contemporary architectural projects after an analytical study of these projects. The conclusions concerning the multiple mechanisms achieved and concatenated as they arise (encoding and metaphor and similarity), and the variation of expressive Appropriateness achievement is due to the diversity of goals and mechanisms adopted.

Application of the Environmental Design Treatments in the Steps of Design Process, in Hot –Dry Climate

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 19-34

Due to the cyclical changes of the climate during the year, it is imperative in the building design process that special consideration and treatments should be taken in order to protect the building from the climatic changes. These treatments should be used in the designing process in order to upgrade the building so that it should be highly efficient in its thermal control and accomplish the desired comfort to the occupants.
The multiplicity of the environmental treatments used in design and the wide spectrum of its effect that differ in accordance with the strategic target that was used for, resulted that its somewhat difficult for designer to be adequate by basic knowledge necessary in dealing with these treatments in the design.
The research finds conclusion that correlate the environmental design treatments with the thermal control strategies (for hot and cold seasons) and the steps of the design process. These conclusions stressed the importance of having a programmable theoretical order of the environmental design treatments to produce thermally efficient buildings.

Traditional architectural type simulation strategy to fulfil environmental sustainability Courtyard type as a model

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 52-80

In last decades, many architectural tendencies has appeared, that adapting sustainability, with various nominations, but with same or close meanings that refer to same concept. It's all dealing with principles, characteristics, dimensions, and elements of sustainable design, but it were lack to such a comprehensive framework treatment method. which resulting with abstrusely vision for the designer, globally and locally, to determine lineaments of design strategy, that depending on an environmental fundament, with sustainable impression. This abstrusity is the "research problem". This strategy may be strike from fundamental environmental design concept. There for, the research, suppose that, there is an ability to create general conceptual framework, can be used to specify or determine lineaments of design strategies, depending on an environmental idea, that able to give the project such a sustainability characteristic. According to this, the research aim specified as formulating general conceptual framework that having ability to assess projects or architectural designs, and specify or recognize adopted design strategy that strike from sustainable environmental fundament.
To fulfill the aim, the research contains three terms. The first one focused on environment and sustainability, in order to understand accredited fundaments, which used to formulate sustainable environmental assessment and design systems, and to produce such a procedural definition for sustainable environmental design. Second term utilize results of former term to formulate a comprehensive theoretical framework, with primary terms and secondary indicators, which inserted in separated table to be implement in term three on selected project (modern courtyard house) to get results which discussed with its two sides, theoretical and practical, to put results and conclusions..

The Impact of the Sacred Sites in the Particularity of the City Holy city of Najaf as a Case Study

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 108-127

The sacred sites considered as explicit spiritual and architectural symbols, enhance the memory of what society holds of history, culture and the nature of his relationship with the sacred, which contribute to enhancing the privacy of the city through what is achieved from the meanings interact with human directly affect the city properties of architectural and urban features on different material and spiritual level. Basically, the research began by searching about the sacred concept in various fields down to discuss studies and proposals that dealwith the holy sites and the content of the types and characteristics and spiritual values, so the research set his field in :( the importance of the holy sites and their effect on the city).obviously, each city hasmany factors affecting on its diverse spiritual and material values which are shows clearly inthe Particularity of the City, so the research went to study the city's particularity and put the research problem as represented by: (there is a lack of a clear vision in the impact of the holy sites on the particularity of the city), and then move on to see the analyzing ofsome distinguished citieswhich have a lot of sacred sites.Where the search addressed the research problem to the main hypothesis represented as: (influence of the holy sites on the particularity of the city shows through physical dimension). For the purpose of verifying the validity of the assumptions a group of holy sites in the holy city of Najaf that carry spiritual properties were selected and it has been tested by a questionnaire that was distributed to the intentional samples. The research found that the holy sites and have a role in the particularity of the city through all the urban composition and functional properties of values, and revealed a disparate impact of holy sites in local towns than in cities of the world in a way that reinforcing the particularity of each of them..

The basic criteria for the development of architectural education programs (Department of Architecture-University of Technology) as a model

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 148-165

Many of architectural schools experiencing challenges related to the weakness of their suitability to meet the standards of the criditability inistitutions. In reaction to that, interest increased about quality and cridibility to ensure that the educational process outputs meet with the requirements of international recognition. The problem of the search to find the deficient in the diagnosis of the factors affecting the development of architectural education programs and enter the quality and cridibility as new variables concepts. The objective of the research identifying factors affecting the development of architectural education programs and proposing the changes necessary to make the development process in line with the recent developments and the increased informational base from a global point of cridibility and international standards on the other hand..

Sustainable Transportation and Urban Form

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 187-206

The development of the means of transportation lead to travelling to new areas, and settled in suburban, so it was necessary to study the relationship between sustainable transportation and urban form .The research problem was that (there was a gab about the role of sustainable transportation in urban form). The aim of this paper is to build a theoretical frame work about this relationships. The paper described and analyzed two, Arabic and international samples, which have been chosen according to the variety of sustainable transportation as an urban strategy .The paper concluded that, the urban form based on sustainable transportation distinct, by cohesion and compactance at the local level, and multiplicity of nuclei in the large cities .The sustainable transport patterns by walking enhance the preservation of heritage and historical areas, also meets the human needs ..

Architecture Image of Baghdad City during the Mamluk Rule As Seen by Foreign Travelers

The iraqi journal of architecture and planning, Volume 12, Issue 1, Pages 227-251

The Mamluks rule of Baghdad (1749-1831 AD) is considered an important stage in the history of Iraq being an introductory stage in the modern Iraq history. The research identified its cognitive problem as follows: the lack of Knowledge about the important elements or components of Baghdad city image and its characteristics, both on urban and architectural level, which draw the attention or concentration of the most prominent foreign travellers, each separately, when they visited the city during the Mamluk rule, so they mentioned and described these subjects in their accounts about the journey. First. Moreover there is no clear and somewhat comprehensive architectural image of Baghdad during the Mamluk rule which depends in its drawing only on those travellers’ accounts and describes the elements and components which form the city and its characteristics. Thus the research aims to: draw an architecture image of Baghdad city specific to each traveller selected. First. Then draw a clear and somewhat comprehensive architectural Image for the city of Baghdad, on both urban and architectural levels, during the Mamluk rule by collecting the previous specific images in one comprehensive image. Second. The research has established a general theoretical framework for drawing the architectural image of any city and then applied it using the accounts of four most prominent Europeans travellers, thus the objectives of the research have been achieved. Finally, the main research conclusions were put forward. .